The Advanced Photon Source
a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility

Beamline 4-ID-D

Researchers used XAS/XMCD measurements at beamline 4-ID-D to probe the spin and orbital moments, as well as spin-orbit coupling, in 5f states of Pu in ferromagnetic PuSb. While Pu 5f electrons are usually neither localized nor delocalized, the six 5f electrons in PuSb were found to be localized, the shape of the Pu M-edge XMCD spectra a proxy to the degree of localization.
Researchers used XAS (4-ID-D) and resonant XRD (6-ID-B) to study the role of electron-lattice coupling in the metal-insulator transition (MIT) of rare-earth nickelates by controlling lattice distortions via strain manipulation in epitaxial films. Manipulation of electrical conductivity may lead to novel electronic sensors and devices.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C
Researchers used single crystal XMCD measurements at beamlines 4-ID-C and 4-ID-D to show presence of itinerant ferromagnetism (Tc ~ 100 K) in the As 4p band of K-doped BaMn2As2 which is not associated with an underlying collinear AFM order of the Mn sublattice. The proximity of magnetic and superconducting phases in these materials provided motivation for these studies.
4-ID-C, 4-ID-D
Researchers used resonant XRD (6-ID-B) and XAS (4-ID-D) to probe emergence of a “Polar metal” at the strained interface of an oxide heterostructure in an attempt to accelerate discovery of multifunctional materials with ability to perform simultaneous electrical, magnetic and optical functions.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C
Researchers used XRD (6-ID-B) and XAS/XMCD (4-ID-D) techniques to probe the effects of dimensional confinement in manganite/iridate superlattices with an eye at enabling all-oxide spintronics
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C
Single crystal magnetic diffraction measurements at 4-ID-D were used to investigate the magnetic characteristics of a helical spin-order phase preceding a recently discovered pressure-induced superconducting phase in manganese phosphide (MnP).
Layer by layer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville physicists are exploring the frontiers of tuning material properties down to the atomic level. Experimenting with the stacking pattern of superlattices at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source, the UT researchers and their colleagues investigated inter- and intra-layer dynamics to learn more about magnetism on the nanoscale, with potential connections to high-temperature superconductivity and spintronics.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C
Actinides are a series of chemical elements that form the basis of nuclear fission technology, finding applications in strategic areas such as power generation, space exploration, diagnostics and medical treatments, and also in some special glass. Thorium and Uranium are the most abundant actinides in the Earth's crust. A deeper understanding of the properties of uranium and other actinides is necessary not only for their more efficient use in existing applications but also for proposing new applications. Several open questions remain; progress in this area is usually limited in part by the difficulty in handling these materials safely.
A team of researchers used a combination of high-resolution structural imaging, magnetic domain imaging, and dichroic spectroscopy on three separate x-ray beamlines at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source to shed light on coupled structural and magnetic phase transitions. Through this combination of three individually powerful x-ray techniques, the team was able to provide added insights into the phase transition process and the nature of the coupling between the magnetic and structural order.
4-ID-D, 26-ID-C
Two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline films often exhibit interesting physical characteristics, such as unusual magnetic or electric properties. By layering together distinct crystalline thin films, a so-called “superlattice” is formed. Due to their close proximity, the distinct layers of a superlattice may significantly affect the properties of other layers. In this research, single 2-D layers of strontium iridium oxide were sandwiched between either one, two, or three layers of strontium titanium oxide to form three distinct superlattices. Researchers then used x-ray scattering at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source to probe the magnetic structure of each superlattice.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C
A new material created by Oregon State University researchers and characterized with help from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source and Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. Those “quantum computers” will be able to solve problems well beyond the reach of existing computers while working much faster and consuming vastly less energy.
Sometimes a good theory just needs the right materials to make it work. That’s the case with recent findings by University of Tennessee, Knoxville’s physicists and their colleagues, who designed a two-dimensional magnetic system that points to the possibility of devices with increased security and efficiency, using only a small amount of energy. The researchers studied the hidden physical properties of the material by utilizing high-brightness x-rays from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science user facility at Argonne National Laboratory.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B,C, 33-BM-C
Jarosite, a hydrous sulfate mineral exhibiting unusual magnetic behavior, has intrigued scientists in a range of fields from planetary science to inorganic chemistry. Interactions between iron ions in the material’s lattice structure cause instances of magnetic frustration, which should lead the material to be magnetically disordered. So then, why does jarosite display overall magnetic order under certain conditions? Previous attempts to unravel the mystery of jarosite’s magnetism resulted in contradictory data. Researchers now understand that past studies lacked the technology necessary to account for the material’s myriad magnetic interactions. In this study, researchers working at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source subjected samples of jarosite to extreme pressures in order to systematically vary local coordination environments throughout the material, then observed how these changes affected the material’s magnetic ordering behavior. These findings ultimately unveiled the mechanism for jarosite’s three-dimensional magnetic ordering and revealed a great deal about the nature of geometric magnetic frustration. Moreover, this study serves as a blueprint for how chemists can use pressure to conduct chemically pure magnetostructural correlation studies. By bringing high-pressure techniques to the attention of the chemical community, even the most perplexing magnetostructural mechanisms can be unraveled.
4-ID-D, 13-BM-C, 16-ID-B
Some New and Unexpected Wrinkles in a Spin-Triplet Superconductor Under Pressure: The quest for novel superconducting materials can lead to unexpected places, such as the compound uranium ditelluride, recently found to harbor a topological superconductivity that might facilitate quantum computers. Researchers using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source found that uranium ditelluride reveals some intriguing characteristics when subjected to pressure.
Magnetic-like Vortices and Cycloids Observed in a Ferroelectric Material: Under the right conditions, some ferromagnetic compounds can generate magnetic whirlpools, spirals, and a special type of magnetic whirlpool is known as a skyrmion, which are the subject of intense research for improved electronic devices. Experimental results based on measurements from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source constitute a major advance in identifying a complex electronic response at the nanoscale that can exist in both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials.
Understanding the Flow of Spin Currents Across Interfaces: Researchers trying to make smaller, faster computer processors and other devices have for some time been looking to spintronics. . To advance the field, scientists need to understand exactly how spin current flows across the interfaces between materials. Using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source researchers have shown a strong connection between how spin current propagates through an interface between a heavy metal and a ferromagnet, and the induced magnetic state of the heavy metal.
Using two flat-top diamonds and a lot of pressure, scientists have forced a magnetic crystal into a spin liquid state, which may lead to insights into high-temperature superconductivity and quantum computing.
4-ID-D, 6-ID-B


Beamline 4-ID-D is operated by the Magnetic Materials Group in the X-ray Science Division (XSD) of the Advanced Photon Source.

It's primary research focus is on magnetic spectroscopy measurements at energies between 2.7 and 30 keV.

  • X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.
  • Magnetic x-ray scattering.
  • X-ray magnetic reflectivity.
  • Extreme pressure conditions.
Local Contacts
Yongseong Choi (Magnetic Reflectivity, XMCD) 630.252.2271
Joerg Strempfer (Magnetic Scattering) 630.252.2281
Gilberto Fabbris (XMCD, High Pressure) 630.252.7034