The APS and LBNL have jointly developed the Fast CCD series of highly parallel readout direct-detection CCD cameras. Over a three-year period from 2010-2013, the second generation of the Fast CCD was developed and deployed at the APS.The Fast CCD2 operates in a frame store mode with a 1Mpixel imaging area (30 micron pixels) currently running at 100 fps (sustained rates), but will eventually run at 200 fps in 1 MPixel mode. The APS team has implemented firmware to operate in a ROI mode (960 x 92 pixels) at 1000 fps and plans to implement 5000 fps for 960 x 12 pixels. The APS team was also responsible for mechanical design, the back-end electronics and interface to an ATCA-based high-speed data acquisition system.
In addition, the APS team has developed custom parallel software using MPI to perform real time imaging processing. The software package is based upon a QT-based program developed at LBL, and combines MPI and the EPICS control software into one complete application. The MPI library performs image descrambling, dark subtraction and lower-level discrimination for image storage in sparse matrix format. This was an extension of previous work on image processing using FPGAs. The primary application of this detector is for photon correlation spectroscopy experiments at APS beamline 8-ID. The first commissioning run occurred in December 2013, and by March 2014 the detector was put into routine operation at 8-ID. It had immediate scientific impact by enabling autocorrelation times of 0.001 second (16x times faster than the existing 60 fps detector). In 2019, the Fast CCD was successfully used at 1-ID-E for high-energy (52 keV) Bragg coherent diffraction imaging.
Core APS personnel: John Weizeorick
- Real-Time MPI-Based Software for Processing of XPCS Data, T. Madden et al., IEEE/NSS 2014
- Development of an ATCA based data acquisition system for high speed, direct detection X-ray pixel sensors, J. Joseph et al., Real Time Conference (RT), 18th IEEE-NPSS (2012)
- A 1MPixel fast CCD sensor for X-ray imaging, D. Doering et al. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, 527 (2012)
- Firmware lower-level discrimination and compression applied to streaming x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy area-detector data, T. Madden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 075109 (2011)
- A fast, direct x-ray detection charge-coupled device, P. Denes et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083302 (2009)
Publications (Science using the FCCD2 detector from 8-ID)
- Sunita Srivastava, Suhasini Kishore, Suresh Narayanan, Alec R. Sandy, Surita R. Bhatia, "Multiple dynamic regimes in colloid-polymer dispersions: New insight using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy," J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 54 (7), 752-760 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/polb.23973
- Rahul Mangal, Samanvaya Srivastava, Suresh Narayanan, Lynden A. Archer, "Size-Dependent Particle Dynamics in Entangled Polymer Nanocomposites," Langmuir 32 (2), 596-603 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03311
- Siqi Liu, Erkan Senses, Yang Jiao, Suresh Narayanan, Pinar Akcora, "Structure and Entanglement Factors on Dynamics of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles," ACS Macro Lett. 5, 569-573 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.6b00089
- Samanvaya Srivastava, Praveen Agarwal, Rahul Mangal, Donald L. Koch, Suresh Narayanan, Lynden A. Archer, "Hyperdiffusive Dynamics in Newtonian Nanoparticle Fluids," ACS Macro Lett. 4, 1149-1153 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.5b00319
- Moulik Ranka, Nihal Varkey, Subramanian Ramakrishnan, Charles F. Zukoski, "Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled polymer nanocomposites," Soft Matter 11 (8), 1634-1645 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C4SM01598C
- Ross N. Andrews, "Phase Behavior of Sugar-Oil Complex Fluids and Synthesis of Photodynamic Biointerfaces," Ph.D., University of Cincinnati, 2015.
- Akanksha Agrawal, Hsiu-Yu Yu, Samanvaya Srivastava, Snehashis Choudhury, Suresh Narayanan, Lynden A. Archer, "Dynamics and yielding of binary self-suspended nanoparticle fluids," Soft Matter 11 (26), 5224-5234 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00639B
- Samanvaya Srivastava, "Tethered Nanoparticle -- Polymer Composites: Phase Behavior, Structure, Dynamics and Rheology," Ph.D., Cornell University , 2014.
- Moulik Ranka, "The effects of surface functionalization on rheology, structure and transport properties of nanocomposites," Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2014.