At a heavy-ion linac facility, such as ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, a new ion beam is tuned once or twice a week. The use of machine learning can be leveraged to streamline the tuning process, reducing the time needed to tune a given beam and allowing more beam time for the experimental program. After establishing automatic data collection and two-way communication with the control system, we have developed and deployed machine learning models to tune and control the machine. We have successfully trained online different Bayesian Optimization (BO)-based models for different sections of the linac, including the commissioning of a new beamline. We have demonstrated transfer learning from one ion beam to another allowing fast switching between different ion beams. We have also demonstrated transfer learning from a simulation-based model to an online machine model and using Neural Networks as the prior-mean for BO optimization. Following a failed attempt to deploy Reinforcement Learning (RL), we have finally succeeded in training a model online for one beam and deploy it for the tuning of other beams. More recently, these models are being generalized to other sections of the ATLAS linac and can, in principle, be adapted to control other ion linacs and accelerators with modern control systems.
* This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research used the ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Nuclear Physics User Facility.
Dr. Mustapha got his PhD in Nuclear Physics from the University of Paris at Orsay, France in 1999. In 2000, he joined Argonne's Physics Division as a postdoctoral appointee. In 2003, he became a staff accelerator physicist. During these 20+ years, he participated in several accelerator projects at Argonne and elsewhere, most notably Project-X/PIP-II at Fermilab, FRIB, and most recently the Electron Ion Collider. At Argonne, he contributed to several upgrades of the ATLAS facility, leading to the ongoing ATLAS Multi-User Upgrade project and the development of AI-ML tools to support ATLAS operations.
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