Several widespread applications have re-emerged as a result of improvements in the ability of curved crystals to focus, or image, an x-ray source from one point to another.
We summarize fabrication and metrology steps performed at Inrad Optics for production of curved crystal monochromators, and briefly describe several of these applications.
The high quality of many synthetic crystals, coupled with optical manufacturing and test methods, has made applications involving curved crystals practical. Current applications of technological importance that have benefitted from manufacturing improvements include the use of curved X-ray crystal optics for back-lighter imaging in plasma environments, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with high spatial resolution, and monochromators that provide spatial, as well as, wavelength information.
These crystalline optics diffract x-rays that satisfy the Bragg condition, n λ = 2 d sin ( θB ), where n is an integer, λ is the wavelength, d is the spacing between adjacent crystal lattice planes, and θB is the Bragg angle referenced to the plane of the crystal.
Optimization of a particular application involves selection of a crystal type and orientation with desirable properties, as well as, the overall shape of the curved crystal.