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Advanced Photon Source
X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging

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Beamlines and Facilities: Beamline:2-ID-B

(To visit 2ID-B beamline specific web pages click here... )


The 2-ID-B beamline is optimised to deliver highly coherent flux in the intermediate energy range of 1 keV to 4 keV [1]. The beamline and end station instrumentation focus on the highest resolution scanning microscopy and on coherent scattering and imaging in the nanometer region.


The microprobes use Fresnel zones plates to achieve state of the art focusing and combined with the unusual energy range results in unique capabilities. For example, access to trace element fluorescence mapping and chemical state analysis of important elements such as phosphorus and sulfur for environmental and biological studies with unprecedented resolution. The high spatial resolution of 50 nm is also ideal for studying advanced materials such as buried interconnects within integrated circuits in transmission or fluorescence mode.


The highly coherent beam (100 µm spatial coherence) can be used for a range of coherent scattering and coherent imaging experiments. We perform some fundamental physics and coherent optics and coherence measurement experiments. We also test new microscopy techniques particularly those that use the highly coherent flux such as x-ray fluctuation microscopy.


Beamline Spokesperson

Ian McNulty - ph: 630.252.2882 ; email:

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Martin de Jonge ph: 630.252.7674 ; email:


  • Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy STXM [2]
    • 50 nm resolution
    • Fast fly scans
    • Phase contrast imaging
  • X-ray Fluorescence mapping 0.6 keV – 4 keV
    • 60 nm spatial resolution
    • Access Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca K edges
    • numerous L and M edges
  • Micro XANES and Chemical State Mapping
    • 0.5 eV incident energy resolution
    • 60 nm spatial resolution
  • Coherent scattering
    • X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy (XIFS) or photo-correlation spectroscopy
    • Fluctuation x-ray microscopy
  • Coherent imaging
    • Coherent diffraction imaging
    • Phase contrast imaging

Beamline and source parameters

  • Source: 5.5 cm period undulator
  • Energy Range: 0.8 keV-4.1 keV
  • Monochromator: Spherical Grating, resolution = 5 X 10-4 [3]
  • Flux:
    • Pink beam: 1 x 10 12 @ 1.0 keV
    • Monochromatic focused (108109 ph/sec/0.1%).
  • Beam size at experiment station:
    • Unfocused Beam 350 µm FWHM horizontal x 120 µm FWHM vertical
    • Focused beam down to 50 nm X 50 nm


  • Scanning X-ray Microscope [4]
    • Range of Fresnel Zone plate optics available
      • 40 nm outermost zone width giving highest spatial resolution
      • High efficiency with 60 nm spatial resolution for micro XANES (~108 ph/sec/0.1%).
    • Fast piezo sample scanning stages, 0.8 nm resolution
    • Fly scans
    • Differential Phase Contrast detector for phase objects

In-situ visible light microscope

  • Coherent scattering and imaging two circle goniometer instrument
    • Direct CCD with single photon counting capability
    • Visible conversion CCD cameras



Avalanche Photodiodes

Absolutely Calibrated Photodiodes

Differential Phase contrast, segmented photodiodes.


Energy Dispersive

Low Energy Germanium detector, 30 mm2

Silicon Drift Diode Detectors, 10 mm2


Scientific grade CCD cameras

Direct detection backside illuminated, Princeton Instruments,16 bit, liquid Nitrogen cooled

1024 X 1024 , 24 µm pixels.


Visible conversion, CsI or CdW scintillators, Princeton Instruments,16 bit, liquid Nitrogen cooled

2048 X 2048, 13.5 µm pixels.


Spectromicroscopy in the 1–4 keV region: new capabilities and opportunities for environmental and biological science studies


Unique opportunities are opening up in an increasingly important energy region for environmental, biological, and advanced materials studies. Using brilliant focused x-ray beams at the Advanced Photon Source, spectromicroscopy can be achieved in the 1–4 keV region at beamline 2-ID-B. This energy region has traditionally been difficult to access, but recent inclusion of multilayer coatings to the spherical grating monochromator [ 3] has increased available flux by 20 fold at key absorption edges such as phosphorus and sulfur K edges.


Beamline and instrumentation references

[1] I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, D. Shu, A Beamline for 1-4 keV Microscopy and Coherence Experiments at the Advanced Photon Source, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 , September, CD-ROM (1996).

[2] I. McNulty, S. P. Frigo, C. C. Retsch, Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, E. Trakhtenberg, B. Tieman, B.-C. Cha, K. Goetze, T. Mooney, W. S. Haddad, Design and Performance of the 2-ID-B Scanning X-ray Microscope, SPIE Proc., SPIE 3449, 67 (1998).

[3] I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays, SPIE Proc., SPIE 3150, 195 (1997).

[4] I. McNulty, D. Paterson, J. Arko, M. Erdmann, S.P. Frigo, K. Goetze, P. Ilinski, N. Krapf, T. Mooney, C.C. Retsch, A.P.J. Stampfl, S. Vogt, Y. Wang, and S. Xu, The 2-ID-B Intermediate-Energy Scanning X-ray Microscope at the APS, J. Phys. IV France 104, 11 (2003).


last updated by Stefan Vogt - April 24, 2007

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