Chemical and Materials Science (X-ray Science Division)
The CMS group has operational responsibility for four experiment stations at sector 12 including: three undulator stations (12-ID-B, -C, and -D), and a spectroscopy and scattering bending magnet beamline (12-BM), and USAXS at 15-ID. As part of the APS Strategic Plan, canted undulators have been installed on 12-ID and 12-ID-B has become a full-time dedicated SAXS beamline and 12-ID-C and 12-ID-D are shared between TRSAXS, ASAXS, and surface scattering. Time-resolved and anomalous SAXS experiments on photosystems, biopolymers, polymers, ceramics, and catalytic systems are some of the focus areas for 12-ID-B and -C. At 12-ID-D surface scattering are used to study MOCVD growth, ferroelectrics, liquid solid interfaces and catalysts. 12-BM studies include: spectroscopy of actinides, nanoparticles, nanotubes, in situ electrochemistry, and proteins; scattering studies of growth strains in oxides; and fluorescence in reflectivity mode and surface scattering from solid-liquid and liquid-liquid surfaces. The USAXS instrument is used in materials science research in energy related areas such as: fuel cells, thermal barrier coatings, energy storage materials, hydrogen/gas storage materials, and carbon sequestration materials.
12-BM is a multi-purpose beamline for spectroscopy, small angle scattering and surface scattering. The beamline uses a water-cooled, double-crystal, fixed-exit monochromator with Si(111) crystals capable of operations between 4.5 and 23 keV. A double mirror system (flat plus toroidal) with a cutoff energy of 23 keV focuses the beam in the experimental station to 0.8 mm x 1 mm. Unfocused beam can be used for higher energies. The end station is equipped with a 13-element Ge detector and 6-circle Huber diffractometer. Supported techniques include XAFS, XANES, SAXS,scattering and diffraction.
12-ID-B is dedicated to simultaneous SAXS/WAXS measurements with a pair of Pilatus area detectors and grazing incidence SAXS. Typical research areas supported include:r solution scattering including structural biology, synthetic polymers, and colloidal particles. Chemical and material sciences studies on nano-structures are of interest. Pilatus detectors (2M and 300K) enable time resolved scattering in 10s of milliseconds.
12-ID-C is used for SAXS studies with both mono and pink beam. The 12-ID-C beamline has capabilities for SAXS, WAXS, ASAXS, GISAXS, AGISAXS, and TRSAXS. Energy range from 4.5 to 36 keV. In situ experiments are facilitated with ancillary equipment including furnaces, gas and liquid flow systems, stop-flow, high pressure, and burners.
12-ID-D is used for surface scattering studies. The high energy ranges from 4.5 to 36 keV. Surface scattering and diffraction experiments are supported on a 8-circle goniometer. Areas of study include: MOCVD growth, ferroelectrics, liquid solid interfaces and catalysts.
15-ID-D is dedicated for ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering with a worldwide unique Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray scattering instrument (USAXS) which uses Bonse-Hart geometry and 0.5 – 4 m long pinhole collimated SAXS instrument. Operating range of energies is about 8 – 18keV with flexible beam size – from 0.01 to 2 mm2. The USAXS instrument provides characterization of microstructures from 1 nanometer up to 2 micron. Combined with pinhole SAXS instrument the total accessible range of sizes is 2A – 2 micron with dynamic range of intensities about 1011. The typical applications of these instruments are in the areas of materials science, polymers, metals, selected biomaterials, and ceramics.