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APS User News-at-a-Glance Issue 40: December 21, 2006

Advanced Photon Source,
Argonne National Laboratory

www.aps.anl.gov
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CONTENTS

SPECIAL NOTICE
-- Reduced Operating Hours for APS Run 2007-1

MESSAGE FROM MURRAY
-- Looking Ahead
-- Machine Advisory Committee Endorses Energy Recovery LINAC

SCIENCE NEWS
1. Featured Beamline: The Mail-in Program at SGX-CAT--Quality Data While You Sleep
2. Ten Years Later: Early Research at APS Helped Abbott Labs Develop Anti-HIV Drug
3. Do You Have a "Ten Years Later" Story?
4. Scientific Software: APS Looks to Big Picture of Scientific Workflow
5. Current Research Highlights (bird flu, interfaces, oxygen-hydrogen bonding, high-speed sprays, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease)
6. CV Check: Any New APS Papers?

FACILITY NEWS
7. Congratulations to LS-CAT and HERIX on Major Firsts
8. Detector Pool Offers Short-Term Options or Custom Development

USER MATTERS
9. Save the Dates: Users Week 2007 (May 7-11) Has New Format
10. Committees Named for Users Meeting, APSUO Nominations
11. Foreign Nationals, Please Note: Federal IDs Required for Entry

PEOPLE NEWS
12. X-ray Science Division Invites Applicants for Associate Division Director by January 15
13. APS Staff Richly Awarded (Lee Teng, Alex Lumpkin, Peter J. Chupas, Byeongdu Lee)
14. Meg Vigliocco-Hagen Welcomed in New Role in General User Program

BRIEFLY NOTED
--Lab's holiday shutdown curtails services
--Visitor registration on APS wireless network

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SPECIAL NOTICE: Reduced Operating Hours for APS Run 2007-1

[The following message was sent to the user community on Monday, December 18, 2006. In a nutshell: Because of budget constraints placed on the APS by Congress's failure to pass the 2007 budget, we must shorten run 2007-1 by one week. Additional measures may also be required, but we do not expect to need to reduce staff.]

The 109th United States Congress did not pass the Energy and Water appropriations bill for fiscal year 2007 (which began on October 1, 2006) before it concluded its business last week. Through the U.S. president's widely supported American Competitiveness Initiative, the bill included a much-needed $10M operating budget increase for the APS. The 110th Congress, which begins its work in January 2007, has indicated plans to fund the entire fiscal year under a so-called "continuing resolution," thus threatening to keep the whole of FY07 funding at last year's very low level for APS. Facing this budget crisis, we are forced to reduce our operating hours (which saves on overtime, effort, and power costs) and to drastically reduce the scope of maintenance.

Thus, the next user run, APS 2007-1, will begin as planned on January 30 at 8 am, but will terminate one week earlier than scheduled, at 8 am on April 17. Because of the loss of 18 shifts, we were forced to turn down user proposals which had otherwise merited beamtime. In the next few weeks we will announce our plans for the user runs following 2007-1, but our current estimate is that we will need to extend all shutdowns by one week at each end, reducing the annual number of user hours from 5000 to less than 4200. In addition, we are developing plans to consolidate staffing toward our most productive beamlines, which will, unfortunately, remove some beamlines from general-user access.

While these actions allow us to operate safely and efficiently at a low budget level, they exacerbate the problem of deferred maintenance on the beamlines and accelerators, and slow down new beamline starts and upgrades that were under way. Obviously, this is not a scenario for healthy operation. Despite this bad situation we are encouraged by the bipartisan support for adequate facility operations that materialized in the congressional budget discussions this year. We hope that the problems noted above are only temporary.

In addition, I want to reassure our staff that, thanks to reduction-in-force efforts we undertook last year when dealing with a similar situation, we are, fortunately, not facing the imminent need for any involuntary reductions to our staff for the remainder of FY07. Any further staff reductions would have long-term negative impacts on the viability of the APS.

The Congress, in concert with the U.S. administration, is still considering the details of how they might implement FY07 funding. In the event that the worst-case scenario of flat funding for APS is averted this year, we aim to return to our previously planned run schedule and to offer time to those users who have been denied access due to the funding problems.

I apologize for all the inconvenience that these difficult circumstances create. With strong support from the user community, the administration, and the Congress, I am optimistic that the problems will be temporary.

MESSAGE FROM MURRAY

-- Looking Ahead

From the announcement above you can see that in the short term, we face a major challenge. We are hopeful that Congress and the administration will come through and support full operations of facilities this year, so that we may be able to reverse our planned operational reductions. For this serious crisis to be resolved positively, it is essential that the user community express its concerns about the potential damage to APS science.

However, in my view, the longer term situation is positive, and it would be wrong to let this message be hijacked by short-term bad news. The APS is widely regarded as the largest and most productive user facility in the USA, and the need for an appropriate upgrade in the coming decade is recognized. The bipartisan support for the American Competitiveness Initiative provides a fiscal climate that makes growth realistic. I am excited about the progress in our plans for a major APS upgrade in the next decade. In its recent meeting, the Machine Advisory Committee strongly endorsed the choice of an energy recovery LINAC (ERL) for the upgraded APS, as described below. The ERL offers revolutionary reduction in electron beam emittance, as well as ultrafast pulse timing, while promising relatively little user disruption. In my view, the spatially coherent illumination from an ERL will revolutionize x-ray imaging and nanoscale focusing. And we can provide indefinitely a storage ring mode of operation combined with the ERL mode There are risks, and significant R&D is required, however. With the encouragement of our sponsors at DOE, we are preparing a white paper that will outline an R&D program for the next two years. We will also focus on R&D related to science applications of the ERL, including picosecond pulses and advanced imaging developments. This R&D plan fits well with our expectation of an upgrade project beginning in FY2010. At the coming Users Meeting next May, we will have many scientific workshops focused on the science enabled by the ERL, and I hope that you can participate and share in our enthusiasm.

Thank you for incorporating the Advanced Photon Source in your scientific plans, for it is only through enabling your best science that we can be successful. I hope that you all have a pleasant holiday season and a great New Year.

-- Machine Advisory Committee Endorses Energy Recovery LINAC

Encouraged by our sponsor, the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the APS accelerator scientists and engineers have been considering options for upgrades to the APS. In addition to proposals for storage ring upgrades--from lower emittance lattices to added ID ports--the concept of upgrading the APS to an energy recovery LINAC (ERL) has been actively considered. The ERL option generates particular excitement because it not only promises revolutionary performance improvements but also retains compatibility with the existing beamlines and offers an upgrade path without extended disruption to user operations.

To help determine the upgrade options that best merit further consideration, we assembled a machine advisory committee (MAC) of top international experts for a meeting held on November 15 and 16. We presented the feasible options in some detail to the MAC; their charge for evaluating the options is outlined on the MAC web page (link given below).

The committee has submitted its final report, which strongly encourages the ERL approach: "The proposed Outfield ERL is considered to be an extremely exciting light source which builds on the investment in beam lines and infrastructure already at the APS. It would provide a factor of about 150 increase in brightness compared to the existing APS in addition to increasing the coherent fraction of the x-ray beam and significantly reducing the bunch length."

The summary also notes that the other options are viable, but none provides the revolutionary performance improvement provided by this "Outfield ERL" option.

The committee has recommended that a rigorous research program be initiated to address the technical challenges confronting ERLs; however, they noted that they are optimistic that these challenges can be met.

All the presentations from the MAC can be found on the APS Upgrade Web page (link below). A white paper on the ERL upgrade will be submitted to DOE in February. As we move forward, we will be discussing R&D needs for an ERL with the user community, and a major focus of the next APSUO meeting will be development of the scientific case for an ERL through a number of workshops. For more information about this committee and plans for machine upgrades, please contact Rod Gerig (rod@aps.anl.gov).

-MAC Web page, via Upgrade page: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Conferences/2006/APS_Upgrade/

SCIENCE NEWS

1. Featured Beamline: The Mail-in Program at SGX-CAT--Quality Data While You Sleep

SGX-CAT, the beamline operated by SGX Pharmaceuticals, offers Express Crystallography, a mail-in program in protein crystallography for general users of the APS. Through this program, nonproprietary users have the same access to the beamline that has been available internally to SGX since 2001.

Users are able to determine the approach to data collection, specifying all relevant parameters. Alternatively, the user may have the beamline staff use the automated tools at SGX-CAT to run and evaluate protein crystals. The automated system for crystal evaluation (scoring) has been in operation for over a year and has analyzed images from more than 10,000 crystals. The system has improved the yield of data, demonstrating that crystals whose diffraction appears suboptimal can provide useful and even excellent data.

Samples sent to SGX-CAT are identified by barcodes supplied by the beamline and applied by the user. The barcodes allow all crystals in the program to be tracked through SGX's custom database. Equivalent crystals are linked together in the database. This feature, combined with automated scoring, permits SGX-CAT to reliably select the best crystals for collection.

Interested users should examine the procedures for preparing and identifying crystals at SGX-CAT, several of which are unique to the beamline. All requests for data collection at SGX-CAT are handled as rapid access proposals through the General User Program of the Advanced Photon Source. Proposals may be sent to the APS at any time. Once a proposal has been submitted and all safety documentation provided, samples can be run quickly when the APS is operational. The typical turn-around is 3 days for screening images and 7 days for datasets.

More information:
-Procedures for preparing and identifying crystals: Download from http://www.sgxcat.com
-SGX-CAT technical facilities: Contact the beamline staff at guinfo@sgxpharma.com
-APS General User Proposal System: http://beam.aps.anl.gov/pls/apsweb/gup0005.start_page

2. Ten Years Later: Early Research at APS Helped Abbott Labs Develop Anti-HIV Drug

One of the early research projects undertaken at the Advanced Photon Source, beginning in 1996, was an examination of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using X-ray crystallography, researchers from Abbott Laboratories, who were among the earliest users of the APS, found the points of attack of the HIV protease inhibitors--agents that block the breakdown of proteins. Protease inhibitors stop HIV from making new copies of itself by blocking the last step in the process, when the virus attempts to replicate. Out of that discovery came the drug Kaletra®, now the most-prescribed drug in its class for AIDS therapy.

Full story: http://www.anl.gov/news-room/News/2006/APS060901.html

3. Do You Have a "Ten Years Later" Story?

If you have a "ten years later" story like the one above, we need to hear it! In a national culture that so often demands instant results--and in the difficult budget environment that currently faces us--research institutions such as Argonne must remind our sponsors, Congress, and the public that basic science can, and does, touch everyday life, but it takes time ! If your early work at the APS has found its way into commercial products or processes, or has in some way affected others' lives on a large scale, please send a brief note to Richard Fenner, Public Information (fenner@aps.anl.gov).

4. Scientific Software: APS Looks to Big Picture of Scientific Workflow

One of the immediate outgrowths of the APS Upgrade planning workshops held last summer was the decision to formally support a more coordinated development of scientific software within APS. The effort is headed by Kenneth Evans of the APS Engineering Support Division's Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Group. "We're looking at developing tools that can support the whole scientific workflow from data collection to publication," says Evans. One possibility would be to incorporate high-performance computing so that an experimenter could analyze the data in real time and then change the experiment, perhaps to look at a more productive region of interest. The group has already begun working with beamline scientists at 1-ID in regard to image-processing and visualization software. Collaborative conversations with other facilities are a big part of the plan, Evans explains: "We're starting to talk about a globally common workbench to support total workflow across both neutron and x-ray facilities." The summer workshop generated a lot of feedback, and Evans is interested in talking to more users about their needs--and wish lists--for enhanced software support.

Contact: Kenneth Evans, Scientific Software Section, Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Group, APS Engineering Support Division, evans@aps.anl.gov
Section Web page, with link to August workshop and mailing list: http://www.aps.anl.gov/APS_Engineering_Support_Division/Scientific_Software/
Summary presentation: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Meetings/Monthly_Meetings/2006/monthly_meeting_20060927.htm

5. Current Research Highlights

The following items were added in the last three months to our gallery of science highlights. Full stories are available at http://www.aps.anl.gov/Science/Highlights/.

--Bird flu. Structural data revealed a novel fold in the effector domain of the NS1 protein of H5N1 influenza virus. Significance: Furthers understanding of how the H5N1 strains become more deadly in chickens than in other fowl.
--Interfaces. A new method of microscopy exploits phase changes in reflected x-rays to detect previously unresolvable molecular-scale features in interfaces. Significance: Furthers understanding of the chemistry involved in processes such as corrosion and catalysis.
--Oxygen-hydrogen bonding. When exposed to x-rays, ice formed at high pressure reconfigured into an unexpected O2-H2 alloy that is well crystallized and stable. Significance: Opens a new direction for studying the effects of radiation on chemical bonds.
--High-speed sprays.
Phase-contrast imaging techniques have yielded the first look inside the complex spray near a high-pressure industrial spray nozzle. Significance: Contributes to design of nozzles that deliver liquid more efficiently, for lower cost and fewer environmental consequences.
--Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
The three-dimensional structure of insulin-degrading enzyme had been deciphered. This enzyme breaks down not only insulin but also the amyloid-beta protein, which has been linked to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease. Significance: Provides a promising target for new drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease and diabetes

6. CV Check: Any New APS Papers?

Don't see your latest high-profile work in our highlights? Maybe we haven't heard about it! If it's on your CV and all or part of the work was done at the APS, it should be in our publications database! Please check your entries in the database and let us know about any new additions. We particularly need publication information for journal articles, dissertations, conference papers, patents, and awards.

Database search, instructions on entering publications: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Publications/

FACILITY NEWS

7. Congratulations to LS-CAT and HERIX on Major Firsts

At 10:24 a.m. on June 27, 2006, the Life Sciences Collaborative Access Team (LS-CAT) took first light from the dual canted undulators at beamline 21-ID-D, marking the CAT's latest step toward becoming the APS's newest structural biology sector.
Announcement: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/APS_News/2006/20061031.htm
LS-CAT: http://www.ls-cat.org/

The High Resolution Inelastic X-ray Spectrometer (HERIX) at sector 30 recently recorded its first spectrum during the commissioning phase. The instrument will be available to users in 2007.
Spectrum: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/APS_News/2006/20061025.htm
Technical information: http://www.ixs.aps.anl.gov/

8. Detector Pool Offers Short-Term Options and Custom Development

The Detector Pool makes many different types of x-ray detectors available to beamlines for short-term loans (typically several days to a week or two, but this is flexible). Requests for detectors are submitted by resident beamline scientists on behalf of General Users. However, General Users may contact us directly regarding detector capabilities and other questions. Users may browse the available equipment from the Detector Pool web page (link given below). The staff who run the pool also develop x-ray detectors, emphasizing instrumentation that meets specific needs not solved by commercial equipment. During runs, the Detector Pool is staffed Monday through Friday during normal working hours (Building 431-Z014) .

Contact: Antonino Miceli, amiceli@aps.anl.gov, 630-252-8827 (within Argonne 2-8827); Steve Ross (alternate), skross@aps.anl.gov, 630-252-9510 (2-9510)
Detector Pool: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Xray_Science_Division/Beamline_Technical_Support/Detector_Pool/

USER MATTERS

9. Save the Dates: Users Week 2007 (May 7-11) Has New Format

Mark your calendars for May 7-11--it's Users Week 2007. As in the past two years, several user facilities at Argonne will join forces to present a concentrated week of user science. However, the format has changed: The main session moves to Monday, with Tuesday focused on parallel science sessions and Wednesday and Thursday devoted to workshops. The main session will feature, in addition to viewpoints from the political sphere, a facility overview and keynote science talk from each of four facilities: the Advanced Photon Source, Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), Electron Microscopy Center, and Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. An additional change is that the CNM will hold its annual meeting concurrently, on Thursday through Saturday, May 10-12, with workshops on Thursday (including joint workshops co-sponsored with the other three facilities), a nanoscience-only plenary session on Friday, and a selection of short courses introducing CNM's new facility on Saturday.

Watch for Users Week details: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Meeting/2007/
Watch for CNM details: http://nano.anl.gov

10. Committees Named for Users Meeting, APSUO Nominations

The APS Users Organization Steering committee has begun planning the 2007 Users Meeting. Tim Graber (CARS) was named the APSUO Vice-Chair; as such he will be the chair of the Users Meeting organizing committee, whose members are Millie Firestone (Argonne), Larry Lurio (Northern Illinois U.), Simon Mochrie (Yale U.), Anne Mulichak (U. of Chicago), and David Reis (U. of Michigan). The poster session chair is Thomas Gog (Argonne). The committee is presently narrowing down workshop ideas, but suggestions are still being entertained.

A nominating committee was also selected: Paul Evans, chair (U. of Wisconsin), Simon Billinge (Michigan State U.), Keith Brister (LS-CAT), Barbara Golden (Purdue U.), and Ward Smith (Argonne). They are charged with recruiting four new members to serve a three-year term (2007-2010). Please contact any of the committee members to suggest nominees.

Contact: Susan Strasser, strasser@aps.anl.gov

11. Foreign Nationals, Please Note: Federal IDs Required for Entry

Please be aware that all foreign nationals must have two forms of current federal identification with them in order to pick up a gate pass to Argonne. This requirement applies both to new users and to returning users who have received extensions.

You must bring a current passport or visa or I-94, or some alternative visa federal ID, in order to be allowed access to Argonne. Examples of alternatives for expired visas are an I-20 (for F1 visa), DS-2019 (for J1 visa), or I797 (for H1 visa). Before a gate pass is issued, copies of these documents will be made at the Argonne Information Center. The copies will be forwarded to Argonne 's foreign visits and assignments office.

Contact: Sharon Fisher, APS Foreign Visits and Assignments Specialist, slfisher@aps.anl.gov.

PEOPLE NEWS

12. X-ray Science Division Invites Applicants for Associate Division Director by January 15

The X-ray Science Division (XSD) of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is inviting applicants for the position of Associate Division Director. The successful candidate will supervise six research groups within XSD with a total staff of more than 100 and a commensurate annual budget that includes investments in new capital equipment. The candidate's function will be to guide, coordinate and initiate state-of-the-art x-ray research within these groups; initiate and support new and productive research in collaboration with other academic and industrial partners; facilitate strong general user programs at the APS beamlines; supervise the conception, planning, and implementation of synchrotron based equipment, and guide other scientists in these activities. This position requires an outstanding international reputation in x-ray science; comprehensive knowledge and skill in managing a diverse group of PhD physicists; and demonstrated leadership abilities. This is a senior management position at the laboratory. Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC.

Interested candidates should send a detailed CV by January 15, 2007, along with a list of publications, and the names and addresses of three references through the Argonne website at http://www.anl.gov/jobs. Search for requisition "310028 XSD." Argonne is an equal opportunity employer, and we value diversity in our workforce.

Contact: James W. Richardson, Jr., XSD ADD Search Committee Chairman, jwrichardson@anl.gov, 630-252-3554

13. APS Staff Richly Awarded

--Lee Teng of the APS Accelerator Physics Group has been named the winner of the 2007 American Physical Society's Robert R. Wilson Prize, which recognizes outstanding achievement in the physics of particle accelerators.
Full story at http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/APS_News/2006/20061128_1.htm

--Alex Lumpkin of the APS Accelerator Systems Division Diagnostics Group has been elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society for his work in the time-resolved imaging of particle and photon beams.

--Peter J. Chupas of the APS X-ray Science Division (XSD) Chemistry, Environmental, and Polymer Science Group was named the 2006 recipient of the Sidhu Award, given each year by the Pittsburgh Diffraction Society "for the best contribution to crystallography or diffraction by an investigator within five years of the Ph.D." The XSD staff now includes three recipients of this award: Previous winners are Qun Shen (1988), who now heads the X-ray Microscopy and Imaging Group, and Jin Wang (1994), who heads the Time-Resolved Research Group.
Full story and article citations at http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/APS_News/2006/20061128_2.htm

--Byeongdu Lee, also of the XSD Chemistry, Environmental, and Polymer Science Group, received the 2006 Young Scientist Award from the International Union of Crystallography Commission on Small Angle Scattering. The award was presented in Kyoto, Japan, in July.

14. Meg Vigliocco-Hagen Welcomed in New Role in General User Program

APS staff member Margaret (Meg) Vigliocco-Hagen has accepted the position of User Access Support Coordinator, effective December 1, 2006. In her new role, Meg is responsible for the day-to-day management of the APS General User Program. As such, she is the primary contact for users and beamline administrators for questions about proposals, allocations, scheduling, etc. Please join us in welcoming Meg to this challenging new role.

Meg has been with the APS since 1992, and many of you have already worked with her in various capacities. She was first associated with the user safety program, then moved to the User Office, where she has served as our meetings and conferences coordinator, as well as the primary liaison to the APS Users Organization and Partner User Council. Most recently, she was the Administrative Chair for the very successful 2006 Joint DOE/BES User Facilities Meeting.

Contact: Meg Vigliocco-Hagen, meg@aps.anl.gov, 630-252-9026.

BRIEFLY NOTED

Lab's holiday shutdown curtails services
Please note that Argonne National Laboratory is closed from December 22 through January 1 and will reopen Tuesday, January 2. The User Office will be closed during this time.

Visitor registration on APS wireless network
As of October, visitors are now asked to register before accessing the wireless network at APS. The process is similar to that used in hotels. After registration, the network recognizes the computer until 1:00 am the following Sunday, when all temporary registrations are purged. The next time the computer contacts the network, the visitor will be asked to reregister. The registration screen and access agreement are shown at the link below.

Permanent registration can be arranged for very frequent users by submitting a support request through the APS IT group; contact your host beamline for assistance and refer them to the APS "Info" message of October 12, 2006, for details.

Visitor Network:
http://www.aps.anl.gov/APS_Engineering_Support_Division/Information_Technology/Network/Visitor_Network_Registration.html.