ID041: PC-based Magnet Control System in Storage Ring TERAS
H.Ohgaki, R.Suzuki, N.Sei, S.Sugiyama, T.Mikado, K.Yamada, T. Ohdaira, H.Toyokawa, and T.Yamazaki
Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
Personal Computer (PC) based magnet control system has been developed in the storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. The control system consists of several IBM-clone PCs that have several I/O boards running under the Microsoft Windows95 operating system. The advantage of such PC-based system is 1) inexpensive especially for small- and medium- scale facility. 2) I/O boards and PCs are easily replaced or upgraded. 3) Both hardware and software components can be developed independently. 4) A modern operating system has a ready to use network environment. 5) A variety of applications can be used to access these I/O boards and to develop a man-machine interface without any special programming techniques. The client/server procedure with the TCP/IP protocol is adopted for the network communication between device control PCs and console PCs to control the storage ring in any place, i.e. user experimental rooms, the storage ring room, and the control room. We made a server ! ! application in each I/O board to
Author's name: Hideaki Ohgaki
Full address: 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, JAPAN
Keywords: Personal Computer, Storage Ring, Magnet Control, network, client/server
P. Ninin, R. Bartolome, B. Cantau, C. Delgado, H. Laeger, A. Lund, R. Martini, P. Sollander CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
The TCR, CERN's Technical Control Room, is responsible for the overall surveillance and control of the technical infrastructure covering systems such as cooling, air conditioning, electric power distribution, control and safety systems. In order to prepare this supervision for the era of CERN's future accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have developed, extensively tested and installed a Technical Data Server (TDS). The TDS is an event-driven, distributed, real time information system which can interface to different types of equipment data.
To achieve our objectives of an efficient and maintainable supervisory system with very limited human and financial resources, we based our development on three concepts: rigorous application of software engineering standards, use of a commercially available middleware package and integration of various industrial control systems via a commonly accepted communication standard.
The project adheres fully to the PSS-05 Software Engineering Standards and its life-cycle approach as conceived and published by the European Space Agency (ESA), though some of the technical and managerial documents had to be tailored to the particular context of a CERN in-house project. Throughout the development we focused specifically on quality factors such as: reliability, testing, programming standards and configuration management. A dedicated simulator was built and the TDS underwent systematic tests which covered the maximum load that it is required to handle.
The TDS has been developed on top of the commercial middleware package RTworks. This product is specially designed for the building of large scale applications, offering high speed inter-process communication, scalability, reliability and fault tolerance.
With the TDS we have successfully implemented a new type of industrial system integration at the TCP/IP level. The generic TDS equipment access protocol (GTEAP) fully defines the asynchronous data exchange with the equipment level, providing a clear partition of responsibilities between the global technical supervision and the local process controls.
A first technical system with a limited number of tags has been successfully installed and has shown the TDS to behave as a reliable and robust supervisory system. However, during the implementation of this application it became apparent that the integration and the maintenance of tens of thousands of data points opens new challenges. The availability of the TDS is an excellent step, but a tremendous task of engineering is still ahead of us: the integration of all the data from the many different technical domains into the application software of the TCR, such as the alarm system, the human computer interface and the data logging system.
AUTHOR: P. Ninin & all
KEYWORDS: Off-the-shelf industrial product,Supervision, Software Engineering, Equipment Control Interface.
Wayne Harris(1) and Jean-Marie Le Goff(2), G. Organtini (3), Jean-Pierre Vialle(4)
The CRISTAL project will provide the quality control for a large number of parts to be produced in several countries for the CMS Detectors. The specific requirements for detector construction include: specifying the geometry and structural relationships of various parts; specifying the manufacturing and assembly procedures for all parts; measuring and recording the physical characteristics of all the major components (hardware and electronics); and ensuring that all production meets a high standard, despite many of the production procedures being one of a kind. Production will be controlled by specifying a set of workflows, which, as wellas indicating the production sequence, specify Quality Control processes for identifying and correcting problems in production. Thus the system will be able to ensure that all parts are manufactured correctly and that they meet the standard required. Production specifications are provided centrally (Central System) but actual production will take place in so-called Local Centres distributed world-wide and loosely coupled with the Central System. Each local centre is equiped with specific instrumentation used to characterize and assemble parts. The interface between the instruments and Quality control is performed locally. The resulting data are stored in a local object database and will be duplicated to the Central System when network conditions allow. These requirements are further complicated by the need to store all production history and the measurements permanently, providing free access to physicists and engineers for experiments and maintenance for many years to come. A number of standard tools will be used with this project to derive the complete production process from the detector specifications. These tools include an Engineering Database Management System (EDMS) (to hold the parts specifications and to define the workflows) and a distributed Object Database (to record the physical properties and assembly information for parts). The complete process will occur across a number of sites in different countries, so an Object Oriented Database on the World Wide Web will be used to synchronise production. These tools are loosely coupled using CORBA as defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), so that the workflows can inter-operate fully. The tools, may change significantly, over the life of the project both in their methods of use and their capabilities. In order to ensure continuing interoperability between them the data will be stored and exchanged in a self describing format. According to OMG specifications A four layer model is being developed which will enable any future tool to access the data in the database irrespective of future changes. These layers enable a user to: specify a workflow instance; define the general properties of a workflow; define the semantics of workflows; and define the concepts used to specify a workflow. The CRISTAL project explores the derivation of the production process across these tools using the four layer model to ensure that construction of the Detectors is efficient, economical and of high quality.
Authors: Wayne Harris(1) and Jean-Marie Le Goff(2), G. Organtini
(3), Jean-Pierre Vialle(4)
(1) University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol, United Kingdom BS16 1QY Phone: +44 117 965 6261 email:firstname.lastname@example.org
(2) Electronic and Computing for Physics Division, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Phone: +41 22 767 6559 email: Jean-Marie.Le.Goff@cern.ch
(3) Universita di Roma e Sezione dell' INFN, Roma, Italy
E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: CORBA, EDMS, OMG, Quality Control, Scientific Workflow
W.M. Li, S.M. Hu and S.Q.Liu
Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Lab. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui,230026, China
The control system of Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory was designed in 1983 and completed in 1989. In the existing system, the local control micros are MULTIBUS I single board computers with 8-bit 8085 CPU, which are star-networked to a central computer through acommunication controller. Originally the central computer was PDP11, since 1992 the PDP11 was replaced and an 80486PC has been used for both central control and operator interface. The upgrade of NSRL control system will start at the end of 1997 and last about three years. The architecture of the new system will follow "standard model", i.e. VME (or PC)¡¡I/O controllers communicating via ETHERNET with workstations. We plan to reconstruct the whole system as an EPICS based system. For economic and practical reasons ,we will use MVME162 as the magnet power supply I/O controller and the other subsystems such as vacuum supervision, safety interlock and temperature monitoring will still use PC as the I/O controller. The CANbus system will be used for the communication between the I/O controller and the device level control unit.
Author: LIU, Songqiang, Research Professor
Full address: Dept.of Modern Physics University of Science and Technology of China Hefei,Anhui,230026 P.R.China
key word: control system, upgrade, EPICS
M. A. Chernogubovsky, M. Sugimoto
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
The design of RF control for resonator accelerator at transient beam-loading is considered, and the RF system main characteristics are determined. RF control signal synthesis and optimization with the first results on the accelerating channel optimization are presented.
Submitted by: M. Sugimoto
Full address: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-11 Japan
E-mail address: email@example.com
Fax number: 81(Japan) + 292-82-5460
Keywords: resonator, accelerator, beam-loading, RF control2
G.Di Pirro, G. Mazzitelli, C. Milardi, A. Stecchi
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati P.O.Box 13, 00044 Frascati (RM) Italy
The Control System for DAFNE, the e+e- phi-factory at the National Laboratory of Frascati of INFN, is completely based on personal computers. The choice of commercial software such us LabVIEW[R] at any level and the development of specific hardware, based on Macintosh[TM] boards in a VME environment, succeeded in the development of a Control System suitable for the machine operation. The graphical User Interface provides both friendly interaction with single machine elements and complex accelerator oriented procedures. The machine devices are driven by many distributed CPUs. A shared memory instead of network permits fast, easy, and high bandwidth communications. The Control System allowed the step by step commissioning of the major DAFNE subsystem as they were installed, proving to be modular and extensible. A system overview including installation status, features, performances and operation results is presented.
submitted by: G. Di Pirro
full address: Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, P.O. Box 13 00044 Frascati (RM) Italy
e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
key word: status report, inexpensive system (PC based)
K. Zwoll, H. Kleines, R. Madlener, Affiliation of all authors: Zentrallabor für Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Jülich
PROFIBUS, being a national German (DIN 19245 part I - IV) and an international European (EN 50170 Volume 2) standard, has become the most widely accepted modern fieldbus technology in Europe. A major reason for its success is the scalability in technology and functionality based on a common core: Functional Scalability: The version PROFIBUS DP (Decentralised Periphery) has been designed for the optimised connection of simple, low cost I/O in a time critical environment. The newest version PROFIBUS PA (Process Automation)has incorporated results from the Interoperable Systems Project and is specifically designed for process control applications in a explosion-hazardous environment. Additionally, several dedicated profiles have been defined in the context of the more general PROFIBUS FMS (Fieldbus Message Specification). FMS is a generic, object oriented application protocol which already incorporates automation functions. A profile for FMS specifies the communication behaviour of dedicated device classes (e.g. PLCs, linear encoders, sensors, multiturn actuators), thus reducing the implementation effort and simplifying the exchange of devices from different vendors. In addition to this there are simple solutions in the market, especially in the first generation of PROFIBUS implementations, which directly access the FDL (Fieldbus Data Link) without using any application protocol. Technological Scalability: PROFIBUS is defined as an asynchronous protocol. Thus it was possible to implement a first generation of PROFIBUS interfaces based on microcontrollers (Intel 8051, NEC V25) in parallel with the development of the DIN standard. These implementations are purely done in software using the integrated UARTs without having to rely on any dedicated protocol chip. Today, there is a wide range of ASICs available, allowing dedicated designs where high performance or offloading of the CPU are required. Complete slave designs purely in hardware are possible. At Forschungszentrum Jülich, ZEL has implemented a family of first generation PROFIBUS controllers based on the NEC V25+ in order to introduce PROFIBUS in slow control systems in the context of physics experiments. Because of their limited functionality (just layer 1 and 2) and performance these interfaces are considered to be out of date.In co-operation with an industrial company, ZEL developed a new family of PROFIBUS controllers.The developed PROFIBUS interfaces are based on the family Siemens VLSI protocol chips. The whole range of protocol options without PA has been implemented. For simple, cost efficient adaptation of sensors and actuators a single chip solution has been chosen.The paper will discuss the benefits of the diverse PROFIBUS options with respect to possible applications also in the field of experiment control. Central design decisions regarding hardware and software architecture will discussed and a report of the experiences as well as first performance measurements will give an impression of the overall effort and possible problems.
Submitted by: Dr. Klaus Zwoll
Full Address: Forschungszentrum Jülichatt. Dr. Klaus Zwoll, ZEL D-52425 Jülich Germany
E-mail address: email@example.com
Fax: (++49)2461-61 3573
Keywords: PROFIBUS, fieldbus, industrial standards, process control
K. Cahill, B. Hendricks, T. Zingelman
The World Wide Web is utilized at Fermilab in support of controls development, maintenance and accessibility. This paper will examine the web's utility in support of application program development, application specific help, data acquisition error and statistics reporting, GIF image production including application batch scripting, and a Java front end interface to X-Window console applications.
Submitted by: K. Cahill
Full address: Fermilab P. O. Box 500 Batavia, IL 60510 U. S. A.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fax number: (630) 840-3093
Keywords: Java, Web, X-Window
G. Raupp, K. Lüddecke*, G. Neu, W. Treutterer, D. Zasche, T. Zehetbauer and ASDEX Upgrade Team
Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany* Unlimited Computer Systems, Neuried, Germany
ASDEX Upgrade is a mid-size Tokamak fusion experiment. Structurally similar to the next-step ITER device, its mission is to investigate reactor relevant plasma configurations and boundary physics, and to develop required discharge control. Real-time control on a milliseconds timescale can be decomposed into tasks, for position and shape feedback control, refuelling and heating feedback control, coil and power supplies monitoring, and supervision control on machine and plasma states. Multi-variable control, real-time failure handling and control performance optimization during discharge are needed. The discharge control system commissioned in 1990 was designed as a hierarchical cluster of multi-transputer controller frontends on workstation hosts. Based on the transputer real-time operating system the controllers locally perform synchronous i/o with a transputer link compatible periphery, reference value tracking, actual value and state protocolling, and asynchronous inter-cluster information exchange and synchronisation. An underlying timing system defines a common time reference. A migration path for hardware and development environment does not exist. However, system life span limitation and increased demands on i/o and computing power force to move to a new platform. Conforming to the digital control systems' broad acceptance as a research tool for experimental physics, improved structural and operational flexibility are essential. Future requirements will be to facilitate redundancy, include diagnostics real-time processing, support long-pulse operation, and allow WWW access for remote operation. Trying to anticipate future trends, a new reference system was designed with a function-oriented structure, separating infrastructure tasks from control algorithms, and integrating them with a high-speed network. Too low bandwidth in currently available networks and insufficient engineering manpower to replace central controllers and the vast peripheral system in one sweep and in parallel to operation impose a stepwise implementation. Rejuvenation and further extension of the real-time control system will be managed as a contiguous evolutionary processes: In a first step, transputer frontends will be replaced by workstations, retaining task-specific system structure, transputer link-based peripheral i/o and intertask communication. The latter will run on an added network in a second step. With increasing bandwidth the network will also be used for i/o and the peripheral system redesigned. With all hardware having been renewed using industrial components, the software structure will be made function-oriented. On that base extensions satisfying foreseeable future requirements will be added.
Submitted by: G. Raupp, K. Lüddecke*, G. Neu, W. Treutterer,
D. Zasche, T. Zehetbauer and ASDEX Upgrade Team
Full filename: Max-Planck-Institutfür Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association,Garching, Germany* Unlimited Computer Systems, Neuried, Germany
N. Terunuma, H. Hayano, T. Korhonen, K. Kubo, T. Naito, K. Oide, J. Urakawa, S. Kashiwagi* and T. Okugi**
KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan *Department of Accelerator Science, School of Mathematical and Physical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305, Japan **Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
The accelerator test facility (ATF) in KEK has a 1.54 GeV S-band linac and a damping ring. Beam Commissioning for the damping ring has been started since January 1997. Aims of this facility are to develop the low-emittance-beam technologies for a future linear collider. Control system of the ATF accelerator is based on the CAMAC serial-highway networks handled by the Open-VMS Cluster system. Control software is integrated by using a commercial database application of Vsystem developed by VISTA control-systems inc. This application has a mechanism of a network-database system and graphical control interfaces. We succeeded in creating the control system in a limited time and staff with the help of this database application.
Submitted by: N. Terunuma
Full address: Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan
E-mail address: email@example.com
Keywords: status report, databases
T. Carroll, A. Gilmer and M. Vineyard University of Richmond, VA, USA T. Auger, W. Brooks, S. Fabbro, A. Freyberger, M. Ito, B. Madre, Y. Patois, S. Philips, M. Swynghedauw and J. Tang Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA, USA
The primary instrument in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). This device is a toroidal multi-gap magnetic spectrometer. The magnetic field is generated by six iron-free superconducting coils. The particle detection system consists of drift chambers to determine the trajectories of charged particles, Cerenkov detectors for the identification of electrons, scintillation counters for time-of-flight measurements, and electromagnetic calorimeters to identify electrons and to detect photons and neutrons. The six segments are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. A control system for CLAS is being developed within the framework of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The Hall B equipment currently under EPICS control includes numerous beam line devices, high voltage power supplies, the drift chamber gas system, and safety systems. The status of the control system will be described and future work will be discussed.
Submitted by: Michael F. Vineyard
Full address: Department of Physics, University of Richmond, VA, 23173, USA
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fax number: (804) 289-8482
Keywords: controls, software, EPICS
S. Lackey, E. Barsotti Jr., and C. McClure
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Since antiprotons are difficult and time consuming to produce and accumulate for collider operations in the Tevatron, the Recycler Ring has been added to the design of the Main Injector to recycle the antiprotons at the end of a store. The Recycler will recover and cool the antiprotons from the Tevatron at the end of a store and also accumulate "new" antiprotons coming from the Antiproton Source. Beam position information from both types of beam will be acquired by a new system using an elliptical split-plate detector and tunnel preamplifiers which generate unusual low-frequency signals. Logarithmic amplifiers process these into a held output voltage nearly proportional to position. The results will be digitized using Industry Pack technology and a Motorola MVME162 processor board. The data acquisition subsystem including digitization and timing for 80 position channels will occupy a single VME slot.
Submitted by: Sharon Lackey
Full address: Fermilab, MS307, Box 500, Batavia, Il. 60510-0500
E-mail address: Slackey@fnal.gov
Fax number: 1-630-840-8590
Keywords: Beam Position Monitor Data Acquisition
E. Aldaz Carroll, E. Carlier, J.H. Dieperink, G.H. Schröder and E.Vossenberg
A prototype of a fast pulsed eddy current septum magnet for one of the beam extractions from the SPS towards LHC is under development. The precision of the magnetic field must be better than 10-4 during a flat top of 30ms. The current pulse is generated by discharging the capacitors of a LC circuit that resonates on the 1st and on the 3rd harmonic of a sine wave with a repetition rate of 15s. The parameters of the circuit and the voltage on the capacitors must be carefully adjusted to meet the specifications. Drifts during operation must be corrected between two pulses by mechanically adjusting the inductance of the coil in the generator as well as the primary capacitor voltage. This adjustment process is automized by acquiring the current pulse wave-form with sufficient time and amplitude resolution, calculating the corrections needed and applying these corrections to the hardware for the next pulse. A very cost-effective and practical solution for this adjustment process is the integration of off-the-shelf commercially available boards into an active digital control loop. A 16 bit fixed point, 33 MIPS, DSP together with a 12 bit, 500kSPS, ADC (total cost of under 250$) has been used for this control process. The correction algorithm developed for the DSP uses fuzzy logic reasoning.
Submitted by: E. Aldaz Carroll, E. Carlier, J.H. Dieperink, G.H.
Schröder and E.Vossenberg
Full address: CERN, SL-Division
Keywords: DSP, Fuzzy Logic, Feedback, Process Automation
E. Carlier1 , V. Mertens1, M. C. Raichs2 and J. Serrano2
In 1996, a project has been launched to improve the acquisition, surveillance and diagnostic system of the LEP injection kickers. The technical solution is formed by a VXI acquisition hardware and a Windows NT/LabVIEW software environment. The realisation has been entirely outsourced to industry. This paper discusses the different phases of the project, from the market survey over technical specification to acceptance tests, explains the technical choices and evaluates the results, presents the point of view of both parties on the collaboration and concludes with the experiences learned from this project.
Submitted by: E. Carlier1 , V. Mertens1, M. C. Raichs2 and J.
Keywords: Engineering, VXI, Windows NT, LabVIEW, Industrial Systems
CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
The use of Object-Oriented (OO) techniques has recently become popular in all areas of software technology and HEP control systems have not been excluded from this trend. In course of modernisation of the CERN SPS Experimental Areas control software we started the project by designing and implementing an Object-Oriented database to hold the configuration data for equipments and beams. Applications for displaying beam equipment data, controlling and surveying secondary beamlines are being built based on methods successively added to the database classes. The implementation is based on a commercial OO database - O2 from O2 Technology. The tools of O2 provide prototyping facilities by which methods can be immediately tested on the database. The O2 Web server gives an immediate and intuitive data browser. The Web interface can be customised including calling methods to access equipment or trigger actions. It also provides an excellent connectivity with bindings for C++ and Java as well as Corba and RDBMS interfaces. We will provide an overview of the project and employed methods and the methods employed, and discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach. Performance figures will be given as well.
Submitted by: Kris Kostro
Full address: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
Yu.Eidelman, S.Belomestnikh, S.Karnaev, E.Kuper, G.Kurkin, S.Mishnev, V.Tsukanov Budker
Institute of Nuclear Physics
The VEPP-4 facility consists of two storage rings (VEPP-4M with 365 m circumference and VEPP-3 with 75 m circumference), the beam transport channel, and the injector to VEPP-3. The timing system provides: - a precision timing with accuracy 0.2 ns (generation of signals required to transfer bunches from one accelerator to other and to fit RF systems), - a modest precision timing with accuracy 0.1 ms to synchronize pulsed devices (magnets, RF systems, injection-extraction elements) for ramping, extraction, and injection of bunches, - a synchronization of the program applications (accuracy 10 ms) in each computer and between computers. Timing references are derived from the electronics for control of RF systems. The modest precision timing and the synchronization of programs are provided by digital delay generators. The control of the timing system is distributed between four computers and is integrated into the VEPP-4 control system. All timing is provided with coaxial cables.
Full address: BINP Lavrentjeva, 11 : Novosibirsk: 630090 Russia
FAX: +7 (3832) 352-163
A.Aleshaev, S.Karnaev, B.Levichev, I.Protopopov, S.Tararyshkin
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
The VEPP-4 control system requires an upgrade to support the system functions. The control system is based on CAMAC embedded 24-bit computers. An upgrade would allow us to use PC-based application programming. In the paper we will describe an approach which allow us to integrate our current control system as a real-time process level into a three-layer architecture: - PCs on an operator level, - current computers on a process level, - microprocessor-based front-end electronics on a equipment level. To fit net protocols between an operator level and a process level, to fit data format, and to reduce a number of connections it is used a data flow server. This server includes dynamic database with values of all control and measurement data. Both of the network levels are based on Ethernet. An access from an operator level to a process level is provided by home developed applications. The operator level network is private and separated from the BINP public network.
Submitted by: S.Karnaev
Full address: BINP, Lavrentjeva, 11, Novosibirsk, 630090 ,Russia
FAX: +7 (3832) 352-163
keywords: three-layer architecture,proxy server
E.Ermolov, S.Karnaev, E.Kuper, B.Levichev, V.Popov, Yu.Zaroudnev
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
Intelligent Device Controllers (IDC) widely used today to control distributed power supplies of VEPP-4 facility. These controllers support all control functions for beam energy rising and lowering. The using of IDCs minimize a number of acts for a computer to control power supplies. To control power supplies (with power range from 50 Watts to 200 kWatts) of VEPP-5 facility it was developed IDC with accuracy of stabilization of output current about 0.01%. IDC includes 4-channel 16-bit DAC and microprocessors with program support for a time interpolation of output signal. Microprograms provide control and measuring functions. IDC also includes RAM to storage control and measured codes, a serial interface (MIL-1553b standard) for commutation to the computer, an internal serial interface to commutate in-output registers. IDCs are placed directly inside power supplies electronics to avoid parasitic induced voltages. An analog part of IDC is galvanicaly separated from a digital part.
Submitted by: Yu.Zaroudnev
Full address: BINPL, avrentjeva, 11, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
FAX: +7 (3832) 352-163
Keywords: DAC, interpolation, microprocessor
Stephen Wampler, Shane Walker, and Kim Gillies
Gemini 8m Telescopes Project
The new generation of large, ground-based telescopes must operate differently than previous telescopes. The cost of developing and operating these telescopes means that efficient and effective operation has a high priority. While classical observing often means that astronomers work out the details and sequence of observations while seated in front of the telescopes; the new telescopes' cost and sophistication mean that careful advance planning is needed. The better the advance planning, the more effective the use of the telescope becomes, allowing the exploitation of best viewing conditions. However, any advance planning tool presents a problem -- if it is not convenient and if it does not provide the astronomer with the tools to develop strong science programs, then the tool will not be used. Further, these tools must work for astronomers geographically distant from the observatory, yet still reflect the conditions at the observatory as best as possible. While the Internet and World-Wide Web address the problems of off-site support for science planning, traditional Internet-based solutions introduce logistical problems with maintaining and distributing software for a multitude of platforms and providing up-to-date information. Similarly, traditional Web-based approaches can quickly dissolve in user frustrations over poor network bandwidth and excessive delays -- problems that are beyond the control of the observatory. Fortunately, new Web-based technologies have been recently developed that address these limitations. The Gemini 8m Telescopes Project has adopted some of these technologies in the science program planning software for use on the Gemini telescopes. This same software is used on- and off-site for both the development and the execution of science programs, and works both for classically performed observations and preplanned, queue-based observations. This paper describes this software and underlying technologies.
Submitted by: Steve Wampler
Full Address: Gemini 8m Telescopes Project,P.O. Box 26732 Tucson,Arizona,USA 85726-6732 E-mail address: email@example.com
Fax number: (520) 318-8590
Keywords: telescopes, science planning, Gemini, java, web
H. Brand, H. Essel, Th. Haberer, J. Hoffmann, W. Ott, K. Poppensieker, M. Richter, D. Schardt, B. Voss
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Plankstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
This talk describes briefly the ideas of the tumor treatment with heavy ions, using the raster scanning technique. It gives a survey of the energy loss of heavy ions in matter (Bragg peak) as well as the biological efficiency of the heavy ions. A description of the concepts of the raster scanning technique follows. The physical parameters involved (energy, focus, intensity) will be discussed. The next section deals with the technical realization of the raster scanner control system. It is concerned with the communication with the GSI accelerator SIS and with the handling of the process data stipulated by the treatment planning. These data are: the position of the beam within the tumor, the applied dose for a single pixel, the scanner magnet settings and the beam request mechanism. In addition the control system handles other technical parameters like high voltage, pressure and temperature of the ionization chamber detectors, the position of the patient couch, vacuum valves, etc. An important part of the control system is the beam shut off system. Another subsystem of major concern is the interlock system. This system takes care for the safety of the patient and manages the correct execution of the treatment. The last paragraph describes the means of cross checking and overall system monitoring.
Submitted by: K. Poppensieker
Full address: Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
Fax: +49 (6159) 71 27 85