|LEFFECTIVE||double||0.0||effective length (used if L=0)|
||If nonzero, then particles will lose energy due to material using a simple exponential model.|
||Use simple-minded energy straggling model coupled with ENERGY_DECAY=1?|
||Model energy loss to nuclear bremsstrahlung? If enabled, set ENERGY_DECAY=0 to disable simpler model.|
||If non-zero, electron recoil during Coulomb scattering is included (results in energy change).|
|PLIMIT||double||0.05||Probability cutoff for each slice|
|GROUP||string||NULL||Optionally used to assign an element to a group, with a user-defined name. Group names will appear in the parameter output file in the column ElementGroup|
This element is based on section 3.3.1 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering, specifically, the subsections Single Coulomb scattering of spin- particles, Multiple Coulomb scattering through small angles, and Radiation length. There are two aspects to this element: scattering and energy loss.
Scattering. The multiple Coulomb scattering formula is used whenever the thickness of the material is greater than , where is the radiation length. (Note that this is inaccurate for materials thicker than .) For this regime, the user need only specify the material thickness (L) and the radiation length (XO).
For materials thinner than , the user must specify additional parameters, namely, the atomic number (Z), atomic mass (A), and mass density (RHO) of the material. Note that the density is given in units of . (Multiply by to convert to .) In addition, the simulation parameter PLIMIT may be modified.
To understand this parameter, one must understand how elegant simulates the thin materials. First, it computes the expected number of scattering events per particle, , where is the number density of the material, L is the thickness of the material, , and , with the classical electron radius and the fine structure constant. The material is then broken into slices, where . For each slice, each simulation particle has a probability of scattering. If scattering occurs, the location within the slice is computed using a uniform distribution over the slice thickness.
For each scatter that occurs, the scattering angle, is computed using the cumulative probability distribution . This can be solved for , giving . For each scatter, is chosen from a uniform random distribution on .
Energy loss. There are two ways to compute energy loss in materials, using a simple minded approach and using the bremsstrahlung cross section. The latter is recommended, but the former is kept for backward compatibility.
NUCLEAR_BREMSSTRAHLUNG=1. Note that the energy loss is not correlated with the scattering angle, which is not entirely physical but should be reasonable for large numbers of scattering events.
ENERGY_DECAY=1. Energy loss simulation is very simple. The energy loss per unit distance traveled, , is . Hence, in traveling through a material of thickness , the energy of each particle is transformed from to .
ENERGY_STRAGGLE=1. Not recomemnded. Exists only for backward compatibility. This adds variation in the energy lost by particles. The model is very, very crude and not recommended. It assumes that the standard deviation of the energy loss is equal to half the mean energy loss. This is an overestimate, we think, and is provided to give an upper bound on the effects of energy straggling until a real model can be developed. Note one obvious problem with this: if you split a MATTER element of length L into two pieces of length L/2, the total energy loss will not not change, but the induced energy spread will be about 30% lower, due to addition in quadrature.