Parallel capable? : yes

Parameter Name | Units | Type | Default | Description |

L | double | 0.0 | length | |

K1 | double | 0.0 | geometric strength | |

TILT | double | 0.0 | rotation about longitudinal axis | |

BORE | double | 0.0 | bore radius | |

B | double | 0.0 | pole tip field (used if bore nonzero) | |

DX | double | 0.0 | misalignment | |

DY | double | 0.0 | misalignment | |

DZ | double | 0.0 | misalignment | |

FSE | double | 0.0 | fractional strength error | |

HKICK | double | 0.0 | horizontal correction kick | |

VKICK | double | 0.0 | vertical correction kick | |

HCALIBRATION | double | 1 | calibration factor for horizontal correction kick | |

VCALIBRATION | double | 1 | calibration factor for vertical correction kick | |

HSTEERING | long | `0` |
use for horizontal correction? | |

VSTEERING | long | `0` |
use for vertical correction? | |

N_KICKS | long | 4 | number of kicks | |

SYNCH_RAD | long | `0` |
include classical synchrotron radiation? | |

SYSTEMATIC_MULTIPOLES | STRING | NULL | input file for systematic multipoles | |

RANDOM_MULTIPOLES | STRING | NULL | input file for random multipoles | |

STEERING_MULTIPOLES | STRING | NULL | input file for multipole content of steering kicks | |

INTEGRATION_ORDER | long | 4 | integration order (2 or 4) | |

SQRT_ORDER | long | `0` |
Order of expansion of square-root in Hamiltonian. 0 means no expansion. | |

ISR | long | `0` |
include incoherent synchrotron radiation (scattering)? |

A canonical kick quadrupole, which differs from the MULT element with ORDER=1 in
that it can be used for tune correction.

Parameter Name | Units | Type | Default | Description |

ISR1PART | long | 1 | Include ISR for single-particle beam only if ISR=1 and ISR1PART=1 | |

EDGE1_EFFECTS | long | `0` |
include entrance edge effects? | |

EDGE2_EFFECTS | long | `0` |
include exit edge effects? | |

I0P | double | 0.0 | i0+ fringe integral | |

I1P | double | 0.0 | i1+ fringe integral | |

I2P | double | 0.0 | i2+ fringe integral | |

I3P | double | 0.0 | i3+ fringe integral | |

LAMBDA2P | double | 0.0 | lambda2+ fringe integral | |

I0M | double | 0.0 | i0- fringe integral | |

I1M | double | 0.0 | i1- fringe integral | |

I2M | double | 0.0 | i2- fringe integral | |

I3M | double | 0.0 | i3- fringe integral | |

LAMBDA2M | double | 0.0 | lambda2- fringe integral | |

RADIAL | long | `0` |
If non-zero, converts the quadrupole into a radially-focusing lens | |

GROUP | string | NULL | Optionally used to assign an element to a group, with a user-defined name. Group names will appear in the parameter output file in the column ElementGroup |

This element simulates a quadrupole using a kick method based on
symplectic integration. The user specifies the number of kicks and
the order of the integration. For computation of twiss parameters and
response matrices, this element is treated like a standard thick-lens
quadrupole; i.e., the number of kicks and the integration order become
irrelevant.

Specification of systematic and random multipole errors is supported
through the

`SYSTEMATIC_MULTIPOLES`

and
`RANDOM_MULTIPOLES`

fields. These fields give the names of SDDS files that supply the
multipole data. The files are expected to contain a single page of
data with the following elements:
- Floating point parameter
`referenceRadius`giving the reference radius for the multipole data. - An integer column named
`order`giving the order of the multipole. The order is defined as , so a quadrupole has order 1, a sextupole has order 2, and so on. - Floating point columns
`an`and`bn`giving the values for the normal and skew multipole strengths, respectively. These are defined as a fraction of the main field strength measured at the reference radius, R: , where is the order of the main field and is the order of the error multipole. A similar relationship holds for the skew multipoles. For random multipoles, the values are interpreted as rms values for the distribution.

Specification of systematic higher multipoles due to steering fields is
supported through the `STEERING_MULTIPOLES`

field. This field gives the
name of an SDDS file that supplies the multipole data. The file is
expected to contain a single page of data with the following elements:

- Floating point parameter
`referenceRadius`giving the reference radius for the multipole data. - An integer column named
`order`giving the order of the multipole. The order is defined as . The order must be an even number because of the quadrupole symmetry. - Floating point column
`an`giving the values for the normal multipole strengths, which are driven by the horizontal steering field.`an`is specifies the multipole strength as a fraction of the steering field strength measured at the reference radius, R: , where is the order of the steering field and is the order of the error multipole. The`bn`values are deduced from the`an`values, specifically, .

The dominant systematic multipole term in the steering field is a
sextupole. Note that `elegant` presently *does not* include
such sextupole contributions in the computation of the chromaticity
via the `twiss_output` command. However, these chromatic effects
will be seen in tracking.

Apertures specified via an upstream `MAXAMP`

element or an `aperture_input`

command will be imposed inside this element, with the following rules/limitations:

- If apertures from both sources are present, the smallest is used.
- The apertures are assumed to be rectangular, even if the
`ELLIPTICAL`

qualifier is set for`MAXAMP`

.

Fringe field effects are based on publications of D. Zhuo *et al.* [34] and J. Irwin *et
al.* [35], as well as unpublished work of C. X. Wang (ANL). The fringe field is characterized by
10 integrals given in equations 19, 20, and 21 of [34]. However, the values input into `elegant`
should be normalized by or , as appropriate.

For the exit-side fringe field, let be the center of the magnet, be the location of the nominal end of the magnet
(for a hard-edge model), and let be a point well outside the magnet.
Using to represent the hard edge model and the actual field profile, we
define the normalized difference as
. (Thus,
, using
the notation of Zhou *et al.*)

The integrals to be input to `elegant` are defined as

(21) | |||

(22) | |||

(23) | |||

(24) | |||

(25) |

Normally, the effects are dominated by and .

The `EDGE1_EFFECTS`

and `EDGE2_EFFECTS`

parameters can be used to turn fringe field effects on and off, but also
to control the order of the implementation. If the value is 1, linear fringe effects are included. If the value is 2,
leading-order (cubic) nonlinear effects are included. If the value is 3 or higher, higher order effects are included.