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Magnet strengths are frequently specified in terms of a series expansion.
For normal multipoles and , the expansion is [2]

(6) 
where is the dipole, is the quadrupole, etc.
In general,

(7) 
For electrons, the deflection from a thin element is

(8) 
where
is the beam rigidity and
is the momentum.
The geometric strengths are defined as

(9) 
By convention in elegant, a positive value deflects a particle at toward .
E.g., a positive value indicates a horizontally focusing quadrupole.
Robert Soliday
20140626