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APS Design & Drafting Standards





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This Design and Drafting standard has been compiled in order for the Advanced Photon Source's Design and Drafting Group to better communicate design requirements to our customers.

Through better communication, the Design and Drafting Group hopes to create a mutual understanding of our design requirements among all of our customers.

Only if such mutual understanding exists can the Advanced Photon Source be assured that all of our suppliers are building our needed components as we require.

When building components for the Advanced Photon Source, close adherence to the standard established in this manual is vital. Following these standards means that the components will meet our requirements, but more importantly, that the components supplied by the vendors will meet the Advanced Photon Source's standard of quality for the useful life of the machine.

Although this manual presents a consolidation of available information, it is impracticable to include all data pertinent to the fabrication of components; therefore, sound reasoning and good judgment must be exercised in making interpretations from this manual.

Thank you

Paul Choi

The following valuable contributions were made in the development of this manual. Sections 1 and 3-9 were coordinated by S.Sharma.

Main Contributors for the sections:

Section 1: C. Brite, S. Sharma, A. Barcikowski

Section 2: M. Eisenberg, P. Choi

Section 3: D. Prokop, E. Rotela

Section 4: S. Hanuska, G. Goeppner, S. Sharma, D. Jaskoviak

Section 5: S. Sharma, D. Shu, L. Pruitt

Section 6: E. Rotela, S. Sharma, A. Barcikowski

Section 7: D. Mangra, S. Sharma, P. Choi

Section 8: E. Trackhtenberg, I.C. Sheng, S. Sharma, A. Barcikowski

Section 9: S. Hanuska, S. Sharma, P. Choi

Section 10: D. Prokop, P. Choi

The manual was carefully reviewed by P. Belko and F. Saffrahn. Thanks to A. Salzbrunn for typing and editing several versions of the manual. We also would like to thank Kevin Costello and R. Fenner for the cover drawing. ANSI Y14.5M is included as an appendix to compliment the manual.



This section defines general rules and practices to be followed by all APS designers and drafters to produce design drawings of consistent and professional quality. The contents of this section are intended to be consistent with various American national standards listed in Table 1.1. Because of the broad scope of the APS design and drafting activities and the need for an accurate interpretation of the drawings produced, any use of special or local practices is strongly discouraged.

The accuracy and adequacy of the design and drafting work and its compliance with the applicable standards remain the responsibility of the designer or drafter. Nothing contained in this manual shall be construed as relieving the designer or drafter of the individual responsibility for producing quality drawings.


1.2.1 All drawings shall comply with rules and guidelines for dimensioning and tolerancing given in Section 6.

1.2.2 Commercially available components are to be used whenever possible. Catalog number, short description, supplier name, and quantities are to be given on the parts list.

1.2.3 Each detail shall be drawn on a separate sheet except for tooling, weldments, and architectural drawings.

1.2.4 Each detail is to contain all information needed for fabrication independent of other drawings (with the possible exception of drill-on-assembly techniques). This includes, but is not limited to:

(a) Specific materials called for by name, identifying number, and specification.

(b) Material hardness and hardness depth.

(c) Annealing or stress relieving.

(d) Surface finish symbols.

(e) Weld symbols with joint sizes and other requirements (See Section 8).

(f) Testing specifications, such as pressure tests, vacuum tests, dye penetrant tests, magna-flux tests, radiographic tests, etc.

(g) Finish specifications such as painting, plating, etc.

(h) Brazing specifications.

(i) Calculated weight for heavy components. In special cases add provisions for lifting.

(j) Identification of all assemblies with the drawing number.

1.2.5 Sub-assemblies, in general, are to be drawn in the same orientation as their assembly.

1.2.6 Dimensions given are to be the ones used to fabricate, inspect, and match other parts.

1.2.7 Prints are not to leave the Laboratory with pencilled or penned markings. Drawings are to be revised to reflect such markings. See Section S on Drawings Numbers and Revisions.

1.2.8 All drawings are to be brought up to date and revisions noted in the revision block (see Section 7).

1.2.9 Reasonable simplified drafting practices shall be used. Repetition, excessive use of hidden lines, unnecessary views, shading, and overuse of section lines are to be avoided.

1.2.10 The term "TYP" shall not be used. The number of specific places must be noted. The "X" is a full character height or upper case. (Example: 2X).

1.2.11 The use of multiple sheet drawings should be avoided if possible. If multiple sheet drawings must be used they must all have the same log number and document number listed in title blocks. All sheets must have the same title listed in title blocks, since DCC can enter only one (1) in the database. All sheets must be of the same size and scale. When revising multiple sheet drawings, the revision levels (i.e., the last two (2) digits of the log number and document number) must be updated on all sheets.

1.2.12 All dimension, text, notes will be in capital letters, block form, and aligned horizontally with the drawing title block. The exception is for art work, labels, and logos that are specified on a drawing.

1.2.13 All dimensions shall be decimal values. The use of fractions is to be avoided. The exception is in the identifier for thread sizes, both fraction and decimal values are acceptable.

1.2.14 No symbols are to be used unless otherwise approved. Only acceptable APS abbreviations are allowed.

1.2.15 All characters height will be .13. All sectionals, views, and identifiers text will be .25 in height and may be in BOLD characters.

1.2.16 All title block titles will reflect the W.B. S. titles description on the first four (4) or less of the title block.


1.3.1 All drawings shall be produced using the "third angle orthographic projection" system. The third angle system is preferred as the American standard because the views are the same as those obtained by observing the object from the front, top, side, or rear as indicated by directional arrows in Figure 1.1. The arrangement of typical views is shown in Figure 1.2. A minimum number of views, necessary to completely describe the object, shall be used.

1.3.2 Sectional views shall be placed as close as practical behind the arrows, showing the shape and construction of the object at the cutting plane (see Figure 1.3).

If it becomes necessary to rotate a sectional view, the degree of rotation and direction are specified.

A sectional view must be identified by its title consisting of the full word SECTION followed by the pair of letters; for example, SECTION A-A, SECTION B-B, etc. Avoid use of letters I, O, Q, S, X, Y and Z for sectional views. Lettering shall be upper case.

1.3.3 Detail views shall be shown in the same plane and in the same arrangement as in the principal view. Two ways of identifying the area of detail are shown in Figure 1.4. The view scale is specified directly below the view (and its title).


For general use a cross-section lining symbology depicting cast iron (see Figure 1.3) shall be used on detail and assembly drawings, regardless of actual material. When two or more materials must be identified individually in a drawing, use the material-specific symbology of the latest ANSI Standards wherever applicable.


For ease of handling and filing, prints shall comply with the folding format depicted in Figure 1.5. Final folded will be approximately 8.5 inch vertical x 11.0 inch horizontal.


1.6.1 In general, drawings will be reviewed for general compliance with the following:

    a. Established standards

    b. Manufacturing feasibility

    c. Dimensional tolerance considerations

    d. General Safety practice

    e. Simplicity

    f. Economy

    g. View alignment

    h. Scale

    i. Materials

    j. Fit of mating parts

1.6.2 All reference materials should be made available to the checkers.

1.6.3 APS Design Room Check Print Procedure:

  1. The designer shall make a set of prints upon completion of a job. These prints shall be stamped "CHECK PRINTS" and dated. The first set of "CHECK PRINTS" shall be no larger than "D" size format (21.00" x 33.00").

  2. This set of prints shall be given to the design room manager. Designer will move files from D/D to checker using AutoEDMS.

  3. The design room manager will forward the prints to the checker. Rush job priorities will be authorized by the design room manager.

  4. The designer will furnish reference materials and others requested by the checker. This reference material shall include:

    a. Layouts

    b. Calculations

    c. Reference prints of mating parts and existing parts

    d. Location of coordinates

    e. Copies of catalog data for purchased parts

    f. Copies of the pages from the drawing numbers from which numbers have been assigned, DCC forms, and IDP forms.

    g. An up-to-date electronic file copy of the corresponding assembly.

  5. Signed check prints will be delivered to the design room manager. Reference data will be returned to the designer.

  6. The design room manager will give the check prints to the designer for updating.

  7. Updated originals plus check prints will be given to the checker by the designer. If the designer makes any new changes he must notify the checker of all changes.

  8. The checker will back-check the drawings, sign the originals, and then return the originals to the design room manager. The check prints and the reference material will be filed for a reasonable length of time.

  9. After all signatures are on originals, they are forwarded to DCC and checker will move the files from checker to DCC using AutoEDMS.


Contents in this chapter are for reference only.

AUTOEDMS 3.1 is currently under development, and new standards will follow after AUTOEDMS 3.1 is installed.


Paul Choi



All official APS drawings are produced on the AutoCAD system. The purpose of this section is to outline general AutoCAD practices that have been implemented to promote drafting efficiency, and access and portability of the design drawings.


3.2.1 All drawings produced on the AutoCAD system shall comply with the applicable ANSI standards and the standards not included in this manual. 3.2.2 Access to the AutoCAD system will be via AutoEDMS (see Section 2) unless specifically exempted by the Supervisor, or the responsible engineer.

3.2.3 A new drawing shall be initiated by downloading a standard formatted blank drawing (via AutoEDMS) containing APS-designated title block and border. An appropriate size FORMAT scaled to fit the drawing's requirements shall be used. Do not explode the FORMAT.

3.2.4 Use of multiple sheets in a single electronic file should be avoided. See Section 1.2.11.

3.2.5 Drawings shall be created with all features in full size, drawn at 1:1 scale.

3.2.6 The drawing coordinates x,y = 0,0 shall be on lower left corner of the screen.

3.2.7 Associative dimensioning shall be used. The only exception will be when the parts must show break lines.

3.2.8 All text shall be in ROMANS vertical font, (not slanted). Character height will be .13 or multiples of dependent on drawing scale.

3.2.9 All dimensioning symbols will be of standard shapes and sizes. An electronic file of the symbols will be provided by the D&D Supervisor. Refer to latest ANSI Standards in Dimensioning and Tolerancing Book, Appendix C, Figure C-1.

3.2.10 Hatch patterns available in the standard version of AutoCAD shall be used. (C.I. is preferred when nothing else applies).

3.2.11 Colors and line types shall be assigned by layers in all new drawings. The layers shall be identified by names, rather than by numbers as in the existing drawings. This will ensure the layers' uniformity in the new drawings without causing conflict when old drawings are imported. The layers shall be identified as follows:

BORDER9Light BlueContinuous
HATCH8Light GreySolid
TITLEINFLight YellowContinuous

3.2.12 Color number 0 (zero) shall be reserved for transporting files and inserting blocks.

3.2.13 The line width for each layer shall remain fixed. Refer to latest ANSI Standards for more information. (see Figure 3.3).

3.2.14 When saving the electronic file, the GRID and UCIC Icon shall be off, unnecessary views and sections shall be eliminated, and any other extraneous information shall be purged.

3.2.15 Dimension styles and its variables have built-in default values. These values should not be changed or modified except for the length scale factor, which may be modified for auxiliary views and section views, depending on their scale.



This section covers preferred limits and fits for cylindrical parts used in the design of APS mechanical components. The tables included in this section are based on ANSI B4.1-1979 (R1987). For purchased parts such as shafts, dowels, bearings, bushings, etc., fits and allowances outlined in this section shall be used when manufacturers' recommendations are not available.

Allowance: Allowance is the intentional difference between the maximum material limits of mating parts. It is the minimum clearance or maximum interference intended between such parts.
Tolerance: A tolerance is the total by which a specific dimension may vary.
Basic Size: The basic size is that diameter to which allowances and tolerances are applied to achieve the limits of size for shaft and hole.
Fit: Fit is the general term used to signify the range of tightness which may result from the application of a specific combination of allowances and tolerance in the design of mating parts.
Clearance Fit: A clearance fit is one having limits of size so prerscribed that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled.
Interference Fit: An interference fit is one having limits of size so prescribed that an interference always results when mating parts are assembled.
Transition Fit: A transition fit is one having limits of size so prescribed that either a clearance or an interference may result when mating parts are assembled.
Basic Hole System: A basic hole system is a system of fits in which the design size of the hole is the basic size and the allowance is applied to the shaft. This is the system used in this standard.
Basic Shaft System: A basic shaft system is a system of fits in which the design size of the shaft is the basic size and the allowance is applied to the hole.


In selecting limits of size for any application, the type of fit is determined first, based on the use or service required from the equipment being designed. Then the limits of size of the mating parts are established to insure that the desired fit will be produced. The standard fits shown herein should cover most applications.

4.4.1 RC Running or Sliding Fits: (Table 4.1)

    RC 1. Close Sliding Fits are intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play.

    RC 2. Sliding Fits are intended for accurate location but with greater maximum clearance than class RC 1. Parts made to this fit move and turn easily but are not intended to run freely and in the larger sizes may seize with small temperature changes.

    RC 3. Precision Running Fits are about the closest fits which can be expected to run freely. They are intended for precision work at slow speeds and light journal pressures, but are not suitable where appreciable temperature differences are likely to be encountered.

    RC 4. Close Running Fits are intended chiefly for running fits on accurate machinery with moderate surface speeds and journal pressures where accurate locations and minimum play is desired.

    RC 5. Medium Running Fits are intended for higher running speeds or heavy journal pressures or both.

    RC 6. Medium Running Fits are intended for applications where more play than RCS is required.

    RC 7. Free Running Fits are intended for use where accuracy is not essential or where large temperature variations are likely to be encountered or under both these conditions.

    RC 8. Loose Running Fits are intended for use where materials such as cold-rolled shafting and tubing, made to commercial tolerance are involved.

4.4.2 LC Locational Clearnace Fits (Table 4.2)

LC 1 through LC 11 Transition Fits are intended for parts which are normally stationary but which can be freely assembled or disassembled. They run form snug fits for parts requiring accuracy of location, through the medium clearance fits for parts such as spigots, to the looser fastener fits where freedom of assembly is of prime importance.

4.4.3 LT Locational Transition Fits (Table 4.3)

LT 1 through LT 7 Transition Fits are a compromise between clearance and interference fits, for application where accuracy of location is important but either a small amount of clearance or interference is permissible.

4.4.4 LT Locational Interference Fits (Table 4.4)

LN 2 and LN 3 Locational Interference Fits are used where accuracy of location is of prime importance, and for parts requiring rigidity and alignment with no special requirements for bore pressure. Such fits are not intended for parts designed to transmit frictional loads from one part to another by virtue of the tightness of fit, as these conditions are covered by force fits.

4.4.5 FN Force and Shrink Fits (Table 4.5)

FN 1 Light Drive Fits requires light assembly pressures and produce more or less permanent assemblies. They are suitable for thin sections or very long fits or in cast-iron external members.

FN 2 Medium Drive Fits are suitable for ordinary steel parts or for shrink fits on light sections. They are about the tightest fits that can be used with high-grade, cast-iron external members.

FN 3 Heavy Drive Fits are suitable for heavier steel parts or for shrink fits in medium sections.

FN 4 Force Fits are suitable for parts which can be highly stressed or for shrink fits where the heavy pressing forces required are impractical.


The unilateral system of tolerance is recommended, in which the tolerance on each part (shaft and hole) is disposed in only one direction from the design size, plus for the hole and minus for the shaft. See Example

For an example, examine the fits and allowances of a 1" OD x 1/2" ID "home-made" sleeve bearing* carrying a rotating 1/2" OD shaft (see Fig. 4.0). It has been determined that the bearing will be pressed into a steel plate with a medium drive fit (FN 2), and the shaft will be given a free running fit (RC 7).

Plate/Bearing Fit from Table 4.5:
1" Nom. Size, Hole = + 0.8 thousandths+ .0008
- 0.0 thousandthsPlate = 1.0000 dia.- .0000
Shaft (Bearing OD) = + 1.9 thousandths+.0000
+ 1.4 thousandthsPrg OD = 1.0019 dia.-.0005

Bearing/Shaft Fit from Table 4.1:
1/2" Nom. Size, Hole = + 1.6 thousandths+ .0016
- 0.0 thousandthsPrg ID + .5000 dia. - .0000
Shaft = - 2.0 thousandths+ .000
- 3.0 thousandthsShaft OD = .4980 dia. - .001


*Purchased sleeve bearings generally come with OD oversize by the amount necessary to achieve the proper press fit in a normal reamed hole. It is therefore necessary for the designer to specify the hole size and tolerance to accommodate the bearing accordingto the "Limits of Clearance" in the tables, or to use the manufacturer's recommendations if available.



This section describes various drawing numbers and their use on the APS drawings. The drawing numbers are assigned and controlled by the APS Document Control Center (DCC). Details of the responsibilities and functions of the DCC and how they affect the designing and drafting process are given in "Document Control Center, Hands-on Guide for APS Users." New drawing numbers are obtained through DCN request forms.


The following drawings numbers are presently in use:

5.2.1 Log Number

A log number is a seven (7) digit number preceded by a letter (letter A at present), that is assigned to the drawing by the DCC upon written request. This number is assigned sequentially to the drawings as well as other APS documents. The log numbers often appear to be at random on related drawings when the requests for numbers are not submitted at the same time. Once a log number is assigned to a drawing, it never changes except for its revision level designation, (i.e., its last two (2) digits). (The last two (2) digits are for revision designation and should coincide with the revision level of the document number).

Because of its small field length (8), the log number is easier to use in database and DOS applications. It is, therefore, commonly used for storing, searching and retrieving a specific drawing from a large database of drawings and documents. In APS drawings, the log number is always used in conjunction with a drawing number (either a Logical Drawing Number or a Prototype Drawing Number, see below) in the title block.

5.2.2 Document Number

In September 1992 the DCC replaced the existing septum with a logical drawing numbering system that allowed users to identify relationships between assemblies, sub-assemblies, and their parts. A Document Number consists of three (3) parts: (1) a WBS number, (2) a six-digit sequence, called Logical Drawing Number (LDN), and (3) a two-digit sequence identifying the drawing revision number.

The multiple-digit WBS number, explained in "Document Control Center, Hands-on Guide for APS Users," identifies a major component assembly of the APS Project. The six-digit LDN is composed of three (3) two-digit sequences (see Figure 5.1), representing (from left to right) a sub-assembly, a sub-sub-assembly, and a part. Figure 5.1 illustrates how this hierarchical breakdown is used for a photon shutter assembly.

The division of a major component assembly (defined by the WBS number) into sub-assemblies, sub-sub-assemblies, and parts is the responsibility of the cognizant engineer and his designer. For a specific drawing they propose to the DCC a complete document number consisting of the WBS, LDN, and revision number. The DCC's responsibility is limited to verifying that the proposed number has not already been assigned.

In order to avoid any conflict with the old design numbers not based on LDN, the number zero is not allowed in the first digit (left most) of the LDN. This ensures that the assigned number will always be different from the old numbers which contained only five (5) digits.

5.2.3 Prototype Drawing Number

A prototype drawing number has the same structure as document number except that the former is preceded by the letter "P" indicating a prototype. This drawing number is used when the components being designed are still in a prototype phase and may not be used in the APS machine. When a prototype drawing is considered to be acceptable, the prototype drawing number is converted to the logical drawing number by dropping the letter "P" and incrementing the revision number.

5.2.4 Sketch Number

A sketch number is a five-digit number preceded by the letter "S". Drawings with sketch numbers are generally used by engineers and physicists to convey design information to the design and drafting staff. Their use is restricted to R&D activities. Although the sketch numbers are issued by the DD, it does not store or in any way control drawings with sketch numbers.

The use of sketch numbers on the APS production drawings is not to be used. Asof January 1996 sketch numbers will no longer be used.

5.2.5 Electronic File Number

The Experimental Facilities Division (XFD) uses electronic file numbers in its Design Exchange System, which is being set-up to exchange design drawings of standard components between XFD, beamline users, and other outside organizations. An electronic file number consists of a descriptive identifier of field length two (2) followed by the logical numbering sequence (LDN) explained above in sub-section 5.2.2. The descriptive identifier essentially replaces the long WBS number. Its first field is a letter which represents a component group, and the second field is a number assigned sequentially to different components of that group.

As an example, an existing APS Drawing Number 1415972-810000-00, consisting of WBS, LDN 810000, and revision 00, is identified as V2810000 in the Design Exchange System.


5.3.1 Revision - The term "revision" refers to any change on the drawing after the drawing has been approved and submitted to DCC.

5.3.2 Revision Number - The last two digits of the logical drawing number and the prototype drawing number identify the revision number. The original release is identified by -00, and subsequent releases are numbered sequentially from -01 to 99.

5.3.3 Document Change Note - A Document Change Note (DCN) must be submitted to the DCC with the revised drawings for approval and to update the database.

5.3.4 Revision Symbol - A revision symbol is an identifying number, enclosed in an equilateral triangle as shown in Figure 5.2. Revision symbols shall be used to locate the revision in the field of the drawing. To avoid crowding of revision symbols, a single revision symbol may be used to identify the changes if they are properly identified and described in the (DCN).

5.3.5 Location - Revision symbols shall be located as near as possible to the notes, lines, views, or dimensions which are changed so as to minimize the number of symbols.

5.3.6 Multiple Changes - All changes to a drawing incorporated at one time shall be identified by the same revision number. The changes shall be identified by a revision tri-marker with that corresponding revision number.

5.3.7 Revising a Change - Whenever a change is revised, a new symbol shall be placed next to the previous one.

5.3.8 Revision Block - Each revision shall be recorded in the revision block of the drawing (see Figure 5.2) showing (1) revision symbol, (2) the DCN number, (3) initials of the person making the change, (4) signed initials of the person authorizing the change, and (5) date of the revision.



Rules and guidelines for dimensioning and tolerancing are intended to establish uniform practices for specifying and interpreting design requirements. As a rule, all APS drawings shall comply with ANSI Y14.5M-82, "Dimensioning and Tolerancing," in its entirety. If there is a conflict, the rules given in this section shall take precedence.

ANSI Y14.5M-82 is included in this design manual as Appendix 6-A. For a quick reference, only the most commonly used dimensioning and tolerancing requirements are outlined below.


6.2.1 Dimension. A dimension is a numerical value expressed in appropriate units of measure and indicated on a drawing along with lines, symbols, and notes to define a geometric characteristic of an object.

6.2.2 Reference Dimension (REF). A reference dimension is a dimension without tolerance used only for information purposes and does not govern production or inspection operations. The preferred method is to place the reference dimension within parentheses.

6.2.3 Nominal Size (NOM). The nominal size is the designation which is used for the purpose of general identification, that is, 1.500 IPS, .062 stock size, etc.

6.2.4 Basic Dimension. A numerical value used to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orientation, or location of a feature or datum target. It is the basis from which permissible variations are established by tolerances on other dimensions, in notes, or in feature control frames. Basic dimensions are shown on the drawing in enclosed rectangle.

6.2.5 Maximum Material Condition (MMC). The condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size; for example, minimum hole diameter, maximum shaft diameter.

6.2.6 Allowance. An allowance is the intentional difference between the maximum material limits of mating parts. It is the minimum clearance or maximum interference intended between such parts.

6.2.7 Tolerance. The total amount by which a specific dimension is permitted to vary. The tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum limits.

6.2.8 Standard Tolerances. Dimensions shown without tolerances are controlled by the standard tolerances shown in the title block, except dimensions in welding symbols; those labeled STOCK, NOM, REF, MAX, MIN, BASIC; and similar dimensions that are otherwise controlled.

6.2.9 Datum. A datum is the origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established. NOT A CENTERLINE.

6.2.10 Feature. The general term applied to a physical portion of a part, such as a surface, hole, or slot.


6.3.1 Dimensioning of parts must convey enough information to define clearly the engineering intent, so that no scaling of drawings is required, nor any assumptions need to be made. Functional dimensional values is the preferred method.

6.3.2 Each dimension must be expressed clearly so that it will be interpreted only one way. No factional dimensions are to be used only decimal dimension is the accepted practice.

6.3.3 No surface, line, or point may be located by more than one toleranced dimension in any one direction. If a dimension is repeated, it is marked REF.

6.3.4 Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to avoid accumulation of tolerances.

6.3.5 Dimensions are shown on the view that most clearly represents the form of the feature being dimensioned.

6.3.6 Dimensions are shown outside the outline of the part unless clarity is impaired.

6.3.7 Dimensioning to hidden lines shall be avoided.

6.3.8 Dimensions must be selected to give the required information directly so that no calculations are needed to arrive at usable figures.

6.3.9 Where practicable, the finished part should be defined without specifying the manufacturing method. Thus, only the diameter of a hole is given without specifying how it is to be produced.

6.3.10 Dimensions out of scale shall be avoided.

6.3.11 Unidirectional dimensioning is to be used, that is, all dimensions and notes should be aligned with the bottom of the drawing.


6.4.1 All drawings produced by APS (except the Conventional Facilities Division) shall use the inch as the unit of measurement as per ANSI Y14.5.

6.4.2 On drawings that are not to be released for production or fabricatioin (e.g., drawings for machine physics layout, beamline layout, survey and alignment networks), units of meters or millimeters may be used as primary units with or without equivalent inch dimensions in brackets. The drawing should indicate in a note that this drawing is a metric drawing.


Dimensions are applied with dimension lines or as notes with leaders. Dimension lines indicate linear distance between feature centers or surfaces directly or by the use of extension lines (see Figure 6.1).


Dimensional tolerances may be expressed as follows:

6.6.1 Title Block Tolerancing - The tolerances are specified in the title block and depend on the number of decimal places used in the basic dimension (Figure 6.2).

6.6.2 Limit Tolerancing - The high (maximum) value of a dimension is placed above the low (minimum) value as shown in Figure 6.3.

6.6.3 Plus and Minus Tolerancing - The basic dimension is followed by plus and minus tolerance values (Figure 6.4).

6.6.4 Geometric Tolerancing - The tolerances are defined by means of a Feature Control Frame (Figure 6.5) which specifies dimensional limits for an individual geometric feature such as location, orientation, form, profile and runout. The Feature Control Frame is divided into several compartments containing (1) geometric characteristic symbol (which is, when applicable, preceded by a diameter symbol), and (3) datum references as needed.

Symbols used for geometric tolerances are shown in Figure 6.6. These symbols can be down-loaded from a CAD file available from the design room supervisor.

Figure 6.7 shows typical uses of geometric tolerances on a drawing.


6.7.1 Tolerances shall be assigned, directly or as default values, to all dimensions in a drawing.

6.7.2 Title block default tolerances shall be used whenever feasible or modified for the drawing requirements.

6.7.3 For stock such as bars, sheets, tubings, and structural shapes, tolerances established by industry or Government standards shall apply unless geometric tolerances are specified explicitly.

6.7.4 Tolerances shall be specified to meet actual design requirements. Do not use restrictive tolerances simply because they can be easily generated on a CAD station.

6.7.5 Bilateral tolerances should be selected instead of unilateral tolerances when plus and minus tolerancing is used. Preference should be given to equal plus and minus values.

6.7.6 Tolerances shall have the same number of decimal places as the base dimensions, and have the same character height as the dimensions.



This section outlines the method for specifying the geometric characteristics of surface irregularities in APS. Surface roughness, waviness and lay are the only surface irregularities to be considered unless otherwise stated in APS drawings. These symbols and numerical value classifications shall be used to define the roughness, waviness and lay of a surface in APS drawings.


MIL-STD-100Engineering Practice
ANSI B46.1Surface Texture, Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay
ANSI Y14.36Surface Texture Symbols
ISO 468Surface Roughness-Parameters, Their Values and General Guidelines

ANSI B46.1 and ANSI Y14.36 must be stated on all APS drawings when surface irregularities need to be controlled.


All terms related to the surfaces of solid material shall be defined per ANSI B46.1 and ANSI Y14.36. These terms are summarized in Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4.

Some commonly used terms are outlined as follows:

Surface - The surface of an object is te boundary which seperates that object from another object. Substance or space and produced by such means as abrading, casting, coating, cutting, etching, plastic deformation, sintering, wear, erosion, etc.

Roughness - Roughness is the surface feature of random and repetitively spaced minute or smaller from the center line. Roughness height is the measured profile height deviation taken within sampling length. The average spacing between adjacent peaks is known as the roughness width spacing.

Waviness - Waviness is a more global surface feature than roughness. It is the mean surface upon which roughness can be superimposed. Waviness height is the peak-to-valley height of the modified profile from which roughness and flaws have been removed. The average spacing between adjacent peaks of such a surface is known as the waviness width spacing.

Thus, waviness refers to the larger mean surface upon which roughness is superimposed. However, the roughness number defined deviation from mean centerline.

Lay - Lay defines the direction of the predominant surface pattern. This surface pattern or tool mark is determined by the production method used. This feature may be necessary in sealing of joints and sliding applications of mating surfaces.

It is important to note that these numerical values have dimensions. In APS, the dimensions shall be micro-inches for roughness height and inches for waviness height, waviness width and roughness width unless otherwise stated. Most standard and common machining operations are good for roughness height about 63 micro-inches. A summary of the roughness height of other machining practices are included in one of the attached.

So do not specify surface finish control in metric format whenever it can be done. Finally, better surface finish is very costly. So care must be taken not to request better surface finish than required.

In communicating with metric dimensions, these dimensions and their meaning are going to be quite different.



Preferred design and drafting practices for welds and welding symbolization are given in this section. As a policy, weldments shown on the APS drawings shall conform to the established procedures recommended by the American Welding Society, and the weld symbols shall comply with the ANSI/AWS A2.4, "Symbols for Welding and Non-destructive Testing".

Weld designs for ultra-high vacuum (UHV) components shall follow additional guidelines provided in this section.


8.2.1 Welding - Welding is a process in which metals are joined by inducing melting at the abutting surfaces. Welding may be performed with our without the use of a filler metal.

8.2.2 Welding Processes - Welding processes may be classified into the following main categories:
Induction Welding (IW):
Arc Welding (AW):Submerged arc, inert gas metal arc, atomic hydrogen, shielded metal arc, carbon arc, twin carbon arc.
Gas Welding (GW):Air acetylene, oxy-acetylene, oxy-hydrogen, gas pressure, (not recommended for vacuum applications).
Thermit Welding (TW):Pressure and non-pressure, (not recommended for vacuum applications).
Resistance Welding (RW):Spot, seam, projection, flash, upset, percussion.
Electron Beam Welding (EBW):
Laser Welding (LW):
Pulse-arc Welding (PAW):
Diffusion Welding (DFW):

8.2.3 Weld Symbols - Weld symbols are ideographs used to represent the type of weld specified. Figure 8.1 shows the most commonly used weld symbols and examples of their use. Refer to ANSI/ASW A2.4 for a complete list of weld symbols.

8.2.4 Supplementary Weld Symbols - Supplementary weld symbols, shown in Figure 8.2, are used to provide additional information about the extent of the weld, where and how welding is performed, and the contour of the weld bead.

8.2.5 Welding Symbols - Welding symbols are graphical symbols made up of up to eight elements that convey explicit welding instructions. The eight elements, shown in Figure 8.3 are: reference line, arrow, basic weld symbols, dimensions and other data, supplementary weld symbols, finish symbols, tail and specification, and process or other reference.


8.3.1 Water-to-vacuum welds (as well as brazed joints) are not allowed.

8.3.2 Vacuum welds between dissimilar metals must be avoided (electron beam welds between copper and stainless steel may be allowed in special cases). Brazing between copper and stainless steel, and explosion bonding between aluminum and stainless steel are acceptable.

8.3.3 Preferred UHV weld designs are depicted in Figure 8.3. Unacceptable weld designs are shown in Figure 8.4.

8.3.4 Fabrication drawings shall provide proper allowances for weld shrinkage when an accurate positioning of the UHV components is required.

8.3.5 Weld bead protrusions into the UHV chambers shall comply with the accelerator physics requirements (aperture, x-ray heating, etc.).

8.3.6 Changes in material properties (yield strength, ductility, permeability, etc.) in the heat affected zone must be taken into account in designing weld joints.

8.3.7 A note shall be added to the drawing prohibiting use of filler metals (and brazing alloys) containing low vapor pressure materials (for example, lead, zinc, cadmium phosphorous).



This section specifies a preferred list of screw type fasteners and washers to be used on APS components. It covers only a limited set of screws, nuts, plain and lock washers that meet most of our general requirements. It in no way shall restrict the use of other materials or types where design problems deem them necessary.


The dimensions of the various fastener elements are given in the respective American national Standards Institute standards cited in Table 9.1. Plain washer dimensions are tabulated in Table 9.2. The "TAD DATA" Screw Data Slide Calculator shall serve as the dimensional reference for the standard screws and lock washers. This slide gives data on screw sizes #0 - 1 in. diameter which probably represents 95% of our requirements. For other sizes, refer to the respective standards.


The materials covered by this standard are limited to steel, stainless steel and brass. These are identified by the respective ASTM standards or as noted in Table 9.1. Material call out shall follow examples shown in Table 9.1.


Although this standard does not restrict choice of sizes, Tables 9.3 and 9.4 list the sizes that are commercially available. However, preference should be given to sizes listed in the Argonne Stores Catalog. It is recommended that the UNC series be specified for machine screws because coarse threads make up the bulk of production. The notable exception is size #10-32 where a full selection of lengths is available. Recommended tap drill sizes are given in Table 9.5.


Threads are to be manufactured in accordance with the coarse, fine or 8-thread series, class 2A or class 3A, of ANS B1.1, "Unified Screw Threads". Socket screws shall, however, be manufactured to the UNR Thread Series (ANS B1.7) with controlled root radius.


Screws, bolts, nuts and threads shall be represented in drawings as shown in Tables 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, and 9.5.


The U.S. Department of Energy and the Argonne National Laboratory are concerned that Suspect/Counterfeit parts and materials are not incorporated into APS systems and components. A list of Suspect/Counterfeit parts will be provided to the successful bidder of goods and services. The awarded seller of items and services to the APS will assure that none of the indicated Suspect/Counterfeit parts and materials are incorporated or installed on or within components or equipment. These special requirements will be noted within drawings, specifications, statements of work, and general instructions.

Typical Notification Statement on APS Drawings


This drawing/application requires the use of high-strength fasteners such as grade 5 or grade 8 bolts. In an effort to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit parts into APS components, a list denoting unfavorable fastener manufactures will be provided by ANL/APS Procurement. The Suspect/Counterfeit fasteners, (as noted by their headmarkings), are not to be used in the construction or installation of items identified within this drawing.


10.1 SCOPE

The following standards defines in general the measures to be taken by A/E-Firms and Design Build Firms doing work for APS Project. This will assure compatibility between the above mentioned firms and the APS Engineers, Designers and Drafters, and will provide drawings and designs of professional quality at minimum cost to the Project.

Consistent with the objective of this standard is the need to discuss with and achieve with the above mentioned firms agreement as to the particular drafting methods employed.

Because of the broad scope of APS design and drafting activities and the need for universally uniform interpretation of such work, avoid local and special drafting practices. ANL standards and practices are intended to be compatible with those of industry and governmental agencies, therefore the following general drafting standards are presented.

Special deviations proposed by the A/E-Firms or Design Build Firm shall be discussed with the Project of CADD manager prior to implementation. If it is concluded that such deviations will benefit the work and will not jeopardize the compatibility of electronic files or the reliability of the resulting construction, the specific deviations will be permitted. No such deviations will serve as a blanket revision of these standards.


Floor plans are to be oriented with north arrow pointing either up or to the right - never down or to the left.


10.3.1 Plans

All floor plans for construction drawings will be drawn at a scale of 1/4" per ft. If this is not feasible, downsizing is permitted to 1/8" of 1/16" upon approval of the Project Manager.

Increasing size of the floor plans is permissible by a factor of 1/8" per ft. (Example, 3/8", 1/2").

Group details and sections as much as possible to maintain uniform scale on individual sheets. Do no combine details of one scale with a floor plann of a different scale on the same sheet.

10.3.2 Elevations

Building elevations, interior elevations and building cross sections shall be drawn at a minimum of 1/4" per ft. (Preferred).

Increasing or decreasing size of building elevations, interior elevations, and building cross sections is acceptable at a rate scale of 1/8" per ft. (Example, 3/8", 1/2", 1/4", 1/8").

10.3.3 Details and Sections

Details and sections shall be drawn in scale utilizing either 1/2" = 1'-0", 1" = 1'-0", 1 1/2" = 1'-0", 3" =1'-0". If details or sections are not drawn in scale, deviation will be noted., i.e., scale: N.T.S.


All electronic drawing files will be drawn to limits, i.e., scale; no electronic files will be accepted when drawings are plotted at a different scale than what is shown on the drawing. All drawings will have conventional architectural and engineering scales: Example:

ArchitecturalAll Engineering Disciplines
1/16" = 1'-0"1" = 10'
3/16" = 1'-0"1" = 20'
3/8" = 1'-0"1" = 30'
1/8" = 1'-0"1" = 40'
1/4" = 1'-0"1" = 50'
3/8" = 1'-0"1" = 60'
1/2" = 1'-0"1" = 100'
3/4" = 1'-0"1" = 200'
1" = 1'-0"1" = 300'
1-1/2" = 1'-0"1" = 400'
3" = 1'-0"1" = 500'
6" = 1'-0"1" = 600'

All deviations must be approved prior to usage by APS Project Manager or APS CADD Manager.


If drawings are reduced from their original size for publication, etc., the following note must appear on the drawing: " Warning - This Drawing Has Been Reduced."


All dimensions shown on drawings will be true dimensions to the graphic representation shown, if not, dimensions will be accompanied by the following: Example:

A plotting schedule will be provided on each drawing defining screen colors and pen weights used to create the drawing. See Figure 10.1 for further information.


Manual drawn details, sections, elevations, etc. shall be avoided. If this system is utilized for whatever reason, the A/E and D/B firms, at there own expense, will provide an electronic scan file of these drawings, suitable for use in AutoCad. Mixtures of CADD files with manual methods of drafting, i.e., line work plus cut and paste will not be acceptable unless they are scanned at the A/E and D/B expense and provided in an electronic file suitable for use in an AutoCad format.

All drawings shall include both a standard scale and a graphic scale.


10.9.1 Material

Final original drawings shall be presented on Vellum or Polyester Film - 3 MIL Matte Polyester Film (Mylar) finish on both sides if hand generated. Vellum if drawings are electronically generated and a copy is plotted on a plotter.

10.9.2 Size

Standard sheet sizes shall be as shown below. Select size to maximize drawing efficiency. All drawing sets/packages shall be of one size only.

Standard Sheet Sizes (Inches)

A8-1/2 11
B11 17
C17 22
D22 34 (Preferred)
E34 44
F28 40
10.10 TEXT

Standard text fonts will be used. These are as provided in AutoCad and ASG. Deviations in font styles will be submitted for approval prior to usage. See Figure 10.2 for further information.

All notes, headings, legend, etc., will be placed on default layers as prescribed in AutoCad/ASG. Deviations will be accepted if placed on a layer called "text" any further deviations will be submitted for approval prior to usage.

Insofar as all drawings are drawn to scale, i.e., limits, text must also be drawn to the appropriate scale. See Example #5 for further information.


All A/E's shall provide ANL with electronic drawing data compatible with APS/CFG in-house CAD System. The following is a list of CADD computer programs being used by the APS Project at this time:

    AutoCad - Version 11.0 or 12.0
    ASG - CORE - Version 6.0A
    ASG - Architectural - Version 6.0
    ASG - Structural
    ASG - Electrical
    ASG - Mechanical
      1. H.V.A.C.
      2. Piping
      3. Plumbing
    ASG - Data Link
    ASG - Model Vision
    ASG - Topo/Cogo (Civil)

Symbols shall be as per the standard systems in the latest versions of AutoCad, ASG. Should non-standard symbols be required, prior written approval shall be obtained from the APS CADD System Manager.

See Section 10.11 CADD COMPATIBILITY for a specific program.


Layering shall be as per the standard layering system in the latest versions of AutoCad, ASG. Should non-standard layers be required, prior written approval shall be obtained by the APS Project Manager or CADD System Manager. (See Figure 10.3). See Section 10.11 CADD COMPATIBILITY for specific program.


Abbreviations shall be used only when their meanings are unquestionably clear and shall be per ANSY Y1.1, "Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text," of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

When abbreviations are used, the words and/or terms and their abbreviations shall be defined in a legend.


Revisions and modifications to CADD files must be done electronically, no hand changes will be accepted, this includes reversional changes in the title block.


10.16.1 General description of identification system.

A technical document shall be identified by the assignment of an alphanumeric designation consisting of a Project Identifier, Document Status Identifier, and Document Identifier (sheet number) as follows:

Project IdentifierStatus IdentifierDocument Identifier

The project identifier is assigned by the Document Control Center upon request of the ANL Project Manager.

The document status identifier shall denote the project phase in which the document was originated and shall have one of the following alpha codes:

The document identifier shall identify the type of document and the corresponding assigned number. This shall be an alpha code to denote the document type, i.e., drawing or non-drawing.

A drawing-type document shall be denoted by the particular discipline associated with the drawing as follows:

  • "A" - Architectural
  • "C" - Civil
  • "E" - Electrical
  • "F" - Fire Protection
  • "G" - General
  • "I" - Interiors
  • "L" - Landscaping
  • "M" - Mechanical
  • "S" - Structural
  • "T" - Non-Drawing Document

Each drawing document shall be numbered sequentially within its associated discipline.

For the purpose of clarity, wherever practical the same numerical number(s) should be assigned to the floor plans in all disciplines. For example, if 2 is assigned to a floor plan in architectural discipline, then 2 should be assigned to the same floor plan in mechanical and electrical disciplines.

10.16.2 Example:

  1. Drawing Documents


  2. Non-Drawing Documents


    (See Figure 10.4)


A CADD file shall be identified by a 12-character name. It shall consist of an 8-character file name, a period, and a 3-character file extension.

10.17.1 Elements of a Cadd File Name

a. Characters 1 thru 3 shall reflect the building number or utility. Example:


Building No.Sequential No.Dwg. (Default)
Facility No.00001

400 - Experiment Hall
410 - Control Center
500 - Site Utilities

(See Figure 10.4)

10.17.2 Additional Information

a. The following information shall also be provided along with the electronic files.*

  1. Listing of all WBLOCKS and BLOCKS incorporated.
  2. Customized LISP routines.
  3. Drawings List.
  4. Linetypes, symbols, etc.
      a. Electronic file name and drawing
      "J" - number and title.

      b. Manual drawing title and "J" - number*

  5. Listing of all text fonts and styles used other than the stock font files offered in AutoCad or ASG.

b. The 5-digit code shall be a unique number sequentially assigned throughout the project and each sheet will be uniquely numbered.

c. File Extension.

The 3-character file extension shall always be DWG for AutoCAD files.

d. Examples:



The letters for sections will be in sequential order beginning with the letter A through Z. If more letters are required, a double-lettering system will be employed, such as AA, BB, etc.

The numbers for details will be in sequential order beginning with the number one and so on. (See Figure 10.5).


A title block for each project shall be provided to the A/E and D/B firms for their use in either an AutoCad DWG or DXF format. A sample is enclosed. (See Figure 10.1).


Electronic drawing files will be submitted for review at various stages of the project; typically interim files shall be submitted at approximately 2 week periods for review by the CADD Manager to insure adherence to the general drafting standards as specified.

The electronic files will be reviewed for the standards listed and the following generally accepted CADD practices.

  1. Unnecessary fragmented lines.
  2. Improper layering as described.
  3. Improper text size and fonts.
  4. Scale.
  5. Dimensioning Scale.
  6. Unnecessary electronic files.
      a. Pieces or blocks outside the electronic border.
  7. Multiple blocks, lines, text inserted on top of each other, etc.

Drawings shall be presented on Vellum or Polyester Mylar film as stated in Section 10.9.1, and on 5-1/4" or 3 1/2" high density, 1.2 megabyte diskettes or 5 1/4" 90/120 megabyte bernoulli cartridges for larger projects. As technology progresses, other electronic media may be used contingent on approval of the Project Manager or CADD Manager.


11.1 SCOPE

This section defines general rules and practices to be followed by all APS checkers to check drawings for consistency and professional quality.

11.2. Checking practice will be as follows:

a. Acceptable data will be acknowledged by the use of the color YELLOW.

b. Corrected or revised data will be denoted by the use of the color RED.

c. Back-checking will be acknowledged by the application of the color YELLOW (or other contrasting color) over the previously noted RED. Legibility of notations must be preserved.

d. Final checked drawings must be signed by all persons designated in the title block.

e. Detailing Checklist:

  • Inspect the drawing to see that the projections and sections are made in such a way as to show most clearly the form of the piece and the work to be done on it. Make sure that any workman looking at the drawing will understand what the shape of the piece is and how it is to be molded or machined. Make sure that the delineation is correct in every particular, and that the information conveyed by the drawing as to the form of the piece is complete.

  • Check all dimensions to see that they are correct.

  • Scale all dimensions and see that the drawing is to scale and that dimensions are associated dimensions.

  • See that the dimensions on the drawing agree with the dimensions on the layout.

  • Wherever any dimensions is out of scale, see that the dimension is so marked. ( XX ). X.XXX this practice is not recommended.

  • Investigate any case where the dimension, the scale of the drawing, and the scale of the layout do not agree.

  • See that all figures are correctly formed and that they will print clearly, so that the Shop can easily read them correctly.

  • See that the overall dimensions are given.

  • See that all dimension extension lines go to the correct part of the drawing.

  • See that all arrow points go to the correct dimension extension lines.

  • See that proper allowance is made for all fits.

  • See that the tolerances are correctly given where necessary. Ask if you don't know the tolerances to be applied.

  • See that all dimensions given agree with the corresponding dimensions of adjacent parts.

  • Be sure that the dimensions given on a drawing are those that the machinist will use and that the worker will not be obliged to calculate in order to obtain the necessary measurements for machining or checking his work.

  • Avoid strings of dimensions where errors and tolerance can accumulate. It is generally better to give a number of dimensions from the same reference surface or center line.

  • When holes are to be located by boring on a horizontal spindle boring machine or other similar machines give dimensions to the centers of bored holes in rectangular coordinates and from the center lines of the first hole to be bored, so that the operator will not be obliged to add measurements or transfer gages.

  • Give all weld sizes, show proper weld symbols, and insure accessibility for all welds.

  • Show weldment cuttings only when necessary.

  • Provide "breather" holes on closed weldments.

  • Study the sequences of operations in machining, and see that all finish marks are indicated. Try to make the part in your mind with the information shown on the drawing.

  • See that the finish marks are placed on the lines to which dimensions are given.

  • See that methods of machining are indicated where necessary.

  • Insure adequate stock for machining.

  • Give all drill, ream, and tap sizes.

  • Insure proper use of geometric tolerancing symbols.

  • Avoid special taps, drills, reamers, etc. unless such tools are specially authorized.

  • Where parts are right- and left-handed, be sure that the hand is correctly designated. No drawing should contain both parts.

  • When possible, make parts symmetrical, as to avoid making them right- and left-handed, but do not sacrifice correct design or satisfactory operation to accomplish this.

  • When heat treatment is required, the heat treatment should be specified. Ask, if uncertain, of the proper heat treat process.

  • Verify the title, the scale, the drawing number, and series on both the drawing and the drawing record sheet.

  • Note required finishing operations, i.e., amoloy, electroless nickel, black oxide, etc.

  • Utilize 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, and full-scale only, for details. Consult with the standard design supervisor for exceptions.

  • Consider the kind of material required for the part and the various possibilities of casting, forging, welding, or otherwise forming the part from this material. Then consider the machining operations to see whether changes in form or design will reduce the number of operations or the cost of machining.

  • See that parts are detailed with reference to the economical use of material, and whenever possible, utilize standard sizes of stock and material readily obtainable. In the case of alloy steel, special bronze, and similar materials, be sure that the material can be obtained in the size required.

  • Insure that the Bill of Material on assembly drawings properly calls out the type of material, stock size, quantity required, vendor part number, and source.

  • When preparing assembly drawings, see that the part can readily be assembled with the adjacent parts.

  • Make sure that in being assembled, the piece will not interfere with other pieces already in place and that the assembly can be taken apart without difficulty.

  • When specifying purchased components, insure complete information for ordering, including correct catalog numbers.

  • When using purchased components, insure proper interfacing with fabricated parts, i.e., tapped holes, bearing fits, shaft diameters, mounting feet, etc.

  • Utilize standard APS hardware whenever possible.

  • When detailing a new casting, assign a new pattern number.

  • Insure proper application of standard APS drawing note stamps.

  • Obtain from the design engineer, and note on the assembly drawing, any applicable information regarding motor speeds, traverse rates, pulley ratios, specification number, technical information, etc.
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